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Detail of Biography - Anwar Sadat
Name :
Anwar Sadat
Date :
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415
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Birth Date :
25/12/2018
Birth Place :
Meit Abul Kom in the delta of the river Nile.
Death Date :
Not Available
Biography - Anwar Sadat
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[b]Egypt of the Time[/b][br /]
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As one thinks of Egypt, what one visualizes is the pyramids that stand as eternal sign posts on the crossroads of the world. The rich Egyptian history stands in there. Egypt has always been conscious of its great ancient traditions.[br /]
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In the fourth century, Egypt was introduced to Greek civilization followed by Greco-Roman period that lasted for about 1000 years. The Arab-Islamic civilization made its appearance in the seventh century and has flourished ever since. Throughout the centuries, the people of Egypt have stood like a rock facing the challenges of the invaders. Later the French and the British ruled Egypt. In 1919, after World War I, the people of Egypt were anxious to prevent the British from capturing their land. When they could no longer stand the harsh rules imposed on them by the British, they had no choice but to revolt. These were the circumstances in Egypt at the time of Anwar's birth on December 25, 1918. Anwar was born in a family of 13 children to Mohammed el Sadat and his Sudanese wife Sit-el-Barein, in the village of Meit Abul Kom, 40 miles to the north of Cairo.[br /]
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[b]Anwar's Love for His Village[/b][br /]
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Anwar's father, the sole breadwinner of the family, worked in Sudan, while the entire family was looked after by the grandmother. His family, though very poor, was a well-knit one. Life in village was difficult. Most of the people were poor farmers, barely earning a living from land. The village observed many traditions. If anyone died, the entire village helped in performing various rituals. Such was the brotherhood and consideration for others that if there were any occasion for merrymaking during the period of bereavement at someone else's home in the village, one would go and obtain permission of the affected family. People supported each other both emotionally and spiritually. There were no class differences. People were respected for the values they held. Even in purely mundane matters such as sowing of seeds and reaping of harvest, everyone participated. The entire village was like a family.[br /]
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This kind of bonding and intimacy strengthened Sadat's upbringing.[br /]
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[b]The Grandmother
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The father came home only in annual vacations that lasted for three months. Anwar's grandmother played an important role in shaping his life. The old lady was not only a woman of culture but also an efficient manager. She kept track of what was happening in the entire village and helped everyone in solving their problems. People accepted her verdict as final and implemented it immediately. Anwar was brought up in a very strict religious discipline. The grandmother was extremely religious and made it a practice to listen to the recitation of the Holy Koran. Anwar was her best companion to whom she told stories and folk tales, which he narrated to the village children. His grandmother's tradition of simple faith and burning patriotism left its imprints on his young mind. She also narrated him the stories of the struggle of the Egyptians against the British, the digging of the Suez Canal, the oppressive conditions under which the Egyptians worked, the pangs of hunger and privation they suffered.[br /]
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[b]Anwar's Education[/b][br /]
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Anwar's first teacher, Sheikh Abdul Hamid Issa taught him the Koran. He taught 150 children of the village. Anwar was known as Mohammed to his classmates and teachers. According to his teacher, Anwar was a calm and composed boy who preferred to sit in front row. He was an attentive listener and could easily comprehend things. He was put in the primary Moslem Koran School, the only school in that area which was run by Copts (an organization) in the village of Tukh Delka, at a distance of a one kilometer from their village. He was put in the next higher class in Christian Coptic School because in preliminary class he was above average in Arabic and arithmetic. Anwar was good at Arabic, English and arithmetic. He preferred walking to school and was very fond of physical training. Anwar's father had also learnt the Holy Book in his childhood. His grandfather was also able to read and write. Anwar inherited their thirst for knowledge. He daily dedicated his time in prayers and also observed fasts. His devotion earned him popularity and people started calling him Sheikh Mohammed.[br /]
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[b]Anwar the Patriot[/b][br /]
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In 1931, Anwar's father returned from Sudan. He admitted Anwar to a secondary school Faud - I in Abbasia. His father had agreed to pay for his higher education. He was not in a position to bear the expenses for both Anwar and his brother's education and had to select one for better education. During his school life, Anwar and his classmates had heard about the revolution of 1919. It had ignited their patriotic spirit. Anwar and his schoolmates spent most of their time reflecting on the national movement. They were concerned with the group action against British occupation. Sadat did not hide his burning spirit and in his own way he tried to instill the spirit of freedom in his classmates. He spent five years in the secondary school and established many contacts including with Ahmed Osaki Pasha, who had participated actively in the 1919 revolution. Anwar cherished many dreams, the foremost being to serve a quit notice on the British imperialist forces occupying the native soil.[br /]
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[b]War College[/b][br /]
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In October 1935, the biggest batch of Egyptian youth entered the War College. On October 6, 1936, the War College announced the acceptance of a new term. This batch included another revolutionary mind Gamal Abdel Nasser, Anwar el Sadat and Hussein el Shafei. Initially Nasser was rejected from the War College on the grounds that he had participated in an anti-British demonstration. He, therefore, joined Law College, but through his persistent efforts, he was admitted once again to War College on March 17, 1937.[br /]
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The batch, which entered the War College in 1936, passed out in 1938. This batch, along with the burning spirit of patriotism, was bound by deep comradeship that existed among the members of the batch and survived the onslaughts of time and events.[br /]
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According to the fellow collegians, who passed out of the War College that year, Nasser and Sadat distinguished themselves from others in understanding the political currents. They also set the pattern for patriotic thinking and action. They were mature enough to judge and understand the consequences of any actions. This maturity outweighed the relative immaturity of their young age. During World War II, a batch was sent afield in Palestine to protect the Canal Zone.[br /]
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[b]Sadat's Relationship with Nasser[/b][br /]
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Sadat appreciated Nasser's character. He loved his patriotism and selflessness. He admired Nasser's charming way in which he pointed out to the officers their duty. If a group of young officers sidetracked the main issue of fighting for freedom and indulged in light-hearted gossip, Nasser used to bring them back to the rails. Nasser was always serious about his goals. He encouraged others to do so and motivated them to fight for freedom. Sadat liked the way Nasser used his sharp wits before putting any plans into action. Sadat's relationship with Nasser was a very colorful one.[br /]
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[b]Influences in his Life[/b][br /]
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The young and impressionable mind of Sadat was influenced by a few eminent personalities of his times. And their indirect teaching shaped up the just and courageous leader in Sadat. This included Zahran, a common villager like Sadat, who was hanged by the British officers for opposing the colonial rule. Sadat admired the courage Zahran exhibited on the way to the gallows. Kemel Ataturk, the father of the modern state of Turkey was another personality that became an influencing factor in Sadat's life. Ataturk forced the downfall of the Ottoman Empire and established a number of civil service reforms. The third man was Mohandas Gandhi. While touring Egypt in 1932, Mahatma Gandhi had preached the power of nonviolence in combating injustice. Young Sadat also admired Adolf Hitler in whom he viewed a potential rival to British control, Egypt's rulers.[br /]
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There was one more person, someone quite closer to the reality for him. In September 1938, General Aziz el Masri was the Chief of Staff of the Egyptian Army. General Masri had a great impact on Sadat's early career. He was not only a very competent General but also a shrewd personality in political liaisons. Sadat was fond of General Masri. According to Sadat, General Masri combined the qualities of a soldier with those of a diplomat. Sadat was impressed the way he controlled his passionate temperament with a will of iron.[br /]
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[b]Officers Take the Plunge[/b][br /]
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In 1938, after the War College, a group of young officers used to meet in the garrison of Mankabad. Their immense patriotism made them desperate for a revolution to rid the motherland of imperialism, monarchy and feudalism. Nasser and Sadat were the torchbearers of this movement. In 1939, they set up a secret revolutionary society whose members were dedicated to liberate their country. The society initially consisted of 10 members, of which Nasser was the president. Other members were Anwar Sadat, Abdul Hakim Amer, Kamaluddin Hussein, Salah Salem, and Khalid Mohiuddin; four officers from the Airforce; Gamal Salem, Hasan Ibrahim, Abdul Latif Baghdadi and Abdul Muneim Abdul Raouf. Their single-minded aim for the goal of freedom generated a comradeship, regardless of differences in age, rank or position.[br /]
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The objectives of the revolution plotted by this club were not for taking any revenge but for launching Egypt on a new and revolutionary path with a strong, solid and modern foundation. It was a well-studied patriotic move to restore the glory and position of Egypt.[br /]
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[b]Anwar's Marriage[/b][br /]
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When Anwar was seven, his family moved to Cairo. He used to visit his village from the school annually. Four months of each year he lived in his village and played with the Mayor's children. Eventually he fell in love with Mayor's daughter Ekbal Madi. During his last teen years, he perfumed himself with Jasmine and tried to win the affection of the fair unmarried Ekbal. Moslem lovers, in those days, were not allowed to meet or date openly. They were married in 1940 when Sadat was 22, and an army officer, and Ekbal a stunning beauty of 23. Their marriage took place in their native village of Meit Abul Kom.[br /]
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[b]World War II[/b][br /]
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In 1939, when World War II had just begun, poverty in Egypt, had reached at its peak. The farmers did not have the tools for farming. The social structure of Egypt had collapsed. The peasant proletariat of Egypt was a mute mass of people whose main occupation was survival. The revolutionary group also got scattered. Nasser was sent to Sudan, a place which at that time was a land of exile for army officers.[br /]
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In 1940, Italy declared war and she had more than 80,000 troops on the Egyptian borders. Ali Maher, Egyptian Prime Minister, could not enter the war formally as he was under pressure of the British. On June 22, 1940, he was removed from the office. General Aziz el Masri was dismissed in August 1940. Nasser and Sadat were so resentful of the British occupation that they thought that the only way out was Axis' victory and Allies' defeat. The British belonged to the Allies and German to the Axis.[br /]
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The revolutionary group was divided into two sections - military and civil. The former was headed by Nasser whereas the latter was handled by Sadat. Later, another section, called the administration section was conceived by Nasser.[br /]
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[b]Sadat's Arrest and Escape[/b][br /]
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Sadat was successful in establishing contact between the German High Command and the Egyptian Free Officers. Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, the German war hero sent two of his agents to Cairo in 1942. These spies used to don British uniform and move about in a car fixed with a British number plate. Their lavish spending and immature behavior landed them in trouble. They were arrested by the British Intelligence.[br /]
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Sadat was arrested for complicity and was tried by a special court consisting of two British officers and an Egyptian officer. On October 8, 1942, he was committed to a detention camp. During his imprisonment Sadat remembered his childhood hero, Zahran of Denshway. He was happy that like Zahran he had also defied his rulers and was able to take their punishment. He was detained in a village about four kilometers south of Minia.[br /]
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From there he was shifted to a detention center where he fell sick and was immediately transferred to a hospital in Qasr el Aini where he established contact with secret network that helped him to escape from the detention camp. After the escape, he functioned as a contractor and transport agent for some time under the name of Al Haaj Mohammed Nuruddin. He worked in the Canal Zone as a laborer and then as a trucker hauling building materials to a housing project near the pyramids. During those days he was stressed both mentally and physically. Chased by security services, he spent several anxious years and faced hard times. He was separated from his family and spent his days thinking about them. Later he heard from one of his colleagues that the revolutionary cadre had decided to deliver £10 per month to his family. For Sadat this was a silver lining in black clouds. He could not visit his family as his house was under constant observation and the security police frequently conducted raids on it.[br /]
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[b]Sadat Out Of Army[/b][br /]
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In 1942, the Germans launched their attack against the British Eighth Army commanded by General Ritchie. In June, 3,000 British troops were taken prisoners. In August and September, the British were required to round up the inconvenient elements in the Egyptian officer ranks. Sadat was the target but he was isolated from the army on the grounds of his complicity in undesirable activities. Nasser was in Sudan. He had joined the Military Academy as an instructor on February 7, 1943 and re-established contact with Sadat. By then the war situation had changed in favor of Allies and there were no longer any threats to Middle East.[br /]
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[b]Sadat's Solitary Confinement[/b][br /]
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In September 1945, after returning home, Sadat engaged himself in the movement against a ruler whom British had installed in Cairo. An accomplice of Sadat had shot Prime Minister designate, for which Sadat was arrested on January 12, 1946 and put in solitary confinement. For one and a half years, he suffered great agony. He decided to divorce his wife Ekbal. Sadat was suffering nervous tick and had developed many bad habits. During his imprisonment he was able to get rid of those habits when he read an article written by an American psychologist. He also worked out his personal philosophy of living and sincerely believed that his suffering made him a better person. He had become mentally, physically and emotionally strong. No punishments affected him any longer.[br /]
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Three years later, Sadat was released from prison in July 1948. He had lost his health. One of his friends Hassan Izzat took him to Suez to restore his health. There, Sadat met Jihan who later became his second wife.[br /]
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[b]Free Officer's Organization[/b][br /]
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From 1942 to 1948, when Sadat was most of the time in and out of Jail, Nasser had full control of the free officer movement. Nasser had formed a command organization, the Free Officer's constituent body and had selected those colleagues for its membership who had fought with him in the Palestinian war. Sadat was included in the organization. The relationship between Nasser and Sadat was of an abiding nature and remained an intimate one till the very end.[br /]
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In January 1952, the citizens of Cairo rioted. The riot was a major one. It unnerved King Farouk, the titular head of Egyptian government. Colonel Nasser and his Free Officers' Association had decided to stage a coup overthrowing the monarchy. But the riot of January 1952 had made the king so nervous that Nasser decided to attempt it in July 1952, while the king would be on vacation to Alexandria. In July, these officers posted their troops in strategic positions and were in control of the escape route of King Farouk by July 22, 1952. On the next day, Egypt was under the control of the Free Military Officers. The new government was formed which was headed by Ali Maher. The people of Egypt saw the birth of their new homeland. Nasser sent Sadat and General Naguils to order King Farouk to abdicate. On July 26, 1952, the king willingly left the country.[br /]
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In 1954, Israel started obtaining her arms from France. Israel did everything possible to spoil Egypt's relations with USA and UK. It also sent a spy to Egypt to promote bad blood between Egypt and Western countries. The spy was caught and the sordid affair came to be known as Lavon Affair.[br /]
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[b]Government of Revolutionary Council[/b][br /]
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A new government was formed by the Revolutionary Council. The council nominated officers that could carry out both legislative and executive powers. Political fighting started among the army officers, to establish a sound position for themselves. Sadat worked faithfully for Nasser but did not involve himself in political disputes to gain power. Sadat handled the Public Affairs. He reported the communication officers' work to Nasser. He also ran their newspaper, El Gomhouria (The Republic). In 1954, he was appointed a Minister of State by Nasser. He also worked as Egypt's representative to the Islamic Conference. The latter was a union of all the Muslim countries of the Middle East. What people expected was a state constitution and democratic government. But they nearly received a dictatorship from Nasser. He reorganized the distribution of farmlands. Each person could have a farm of 200 acres. The Bandung conference of 23 non-aligned nations in 1955 gave Nasser prestige among foreign nations. Nasser earned good fame but the conference did little for the people of Egypt.[br /]
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During those days, British power was on the decline. They had lost India and were on the verge of losing Egypt. Egypt had asserted her own rights over the Suez Canal. In 1954, finally, British withdrew from Egypt. Sudan also disunited from Egypt the same year.[br /]
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[b]Sadat in India[/b][br /]
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Being a Minister of State and Secretary General of the Islamic Conference, he often visited Islamic countries in Asia and up to Indonesia. He visited India too.[br /]
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The then Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru gave him a warm welcome. An incident in India left an imprint on Sadat's mind.[br /]
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Nehru had arranged a reception in Sadat's honor. When Sadat and Nehru were exchanging greeting with guests, a man and his wife arrived. Both of them were members of Indian People's Assembly. Sadat had met the couple in Cairo. Both of them had started a violent attack against Nehru in Parliament. Nehru introduced them to Sadat. Sadat said that they were his old friends. They both embraced Nehru and kissed him on both the cheeks, paying him respect as the head of the family, regardless of the opposition to him in politics. Nehru warned Sadat against the two saying that they had caused him a lot of trouble. He also told Sadat never to give them a chance to turn him (Sadat) a communist.[br /]
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Indian culture impressed Sadat. India then had more than 10 languages, 20 religions and 20 races and nationalities, with a population of 400 million. He admired the fact that despite the differences in religion, faith and race and such a vast population the Indians lived like one united family.[br /]
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[b]Back in Cairo [/b][br /]
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Sadat returned to Cairo in 1955. Struggle for power between the army officers in the Revolution Command Council had reached its peak. Sadat tried to explain to them India's system. He explained to them that in spite of the diversity, India lived united. He was against the struggle and gave them his opinion of having a head of the family, like India had Nehru. He added that though having a head, everyone was free to express his or her opinion. Sadat failed to convince the army officers. Disgusted by the struggle for power, he resigned.[br /]
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[b]1967 War against Israel[/b][br /]
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In 1956, Israel selected Egypt for attack, as it was the most important Arab Country. Egypt had started importing Soviet weapons on a large scale and was acknowledged as an Arab leader.[br /]
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Israel knew that Egypt at that time did not have the resources to face the war. A great unity had emerged between Egypt and Syria in 1958, but which later on dissoluted. The dissolution of the integrity came as a sad shock to Nasser. He wanted to strengthen the Arab nationalism through the war in Yemen against Israel. For this war Egypt had made great sacrifices in men and material. Within 24 hours of the outbreak of the 1967 war between Israel and Egypt, the Egyptian army had to be pulled back. Egypt suffered big losses both in Yemen and Sinai. Israel promptly defeated the incompetent and unprepared Egyptian soldiers.[br /]
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The Israelis conquered Sinai, the West Bank of the Jordan river and the Golan Heights. Egypt was under enormous economic burdens.[br /]
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[b]Nasser's Death[/b][br /]
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December 1969, Nasser had a feeling of his untimely death. He summoned Sadat home on the day of his departure to Morocco in December 1969 to attend the Arab summit. Nasser sensed some confusion in the country. He told Sadat that if anything happened to him, Sadat should maintain the nation's forward march. Nasser made him to take an oath as Vice President and that is how Sadat was appointed Vice President of Egypt on December 20, 1969.
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Nasser attended the Arab Summit Conference held in Cairo. The conference created a lot of tension for Nasser. He had exerted himself to great extremities. Sadat wanted Nasser to take a sabbatical at Alexandria, a place that would give him physical and mental solace. Sadat requested Nasser's private secretary to make arrangements for their travel to Alexandria. Being the head of the host country, Nasser saw the kings and heads of states off at Cairo International Airport. King Faisal and the Emir of Kuwait were the last to leave. When Nasser saw King Faisal off, he showed signs of great exhaustion. Sadat suggested that Emir of Kuwait was his personal friend and so he would see him off. But Nasser was firmly determined to bid farewell to the Kuwaiti guest himself and then take rest. He escorted Emir of Kuwait to the plane and waved to his departing guest. After Emir ascended the plane, Nasser was unable to move. His face turned pale and he sweated profusely, he asked for his car to be brought to him where he was standing. Sadat thought that it was nothing more than exhaustion. Nasser agreed to go to Alexandria with Sadat. Sadat went back home to take some rest but at around 7 pm he received a call from Nasser's place. Nasser was somewhat exhausted and he wanted to see him. On reaching Nasser's residence, Sadat learnt that Nasser had passed away an hour before. Sadat ordered the body to be immediately moved to Qubba Palace. He arranged a grand funeral for his friend.[br /]
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[b]The President[/b][br /]
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An emergency meeting was held with Higher Executive Committee. The vice president was supposed to succeed the president. But Sadat wanted to continue as Vice President until the people could elect their President through free and democratic elections. On September 30, 1970, Sadat succeeded to the Presidency and was confirmed by an election in December 1970.[br /]
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Sadat changed the entire atmosphere in the Egypt. He started restoring peace and confidence in the people of Egypt. He ended the spying activities. He released the political prisoners that were earlier detained by Nasser. Egypt lacked the resources, technology and trained manpower. Sadat designed and implemented a system that would develop and later on enrich such resources. He wholeheartedly took over the government of Egypt, and ran it expertly for the benefit of the people of Egypt. He restored social justice, peace and civil rights. He strengthened the feeling of brotherhood among the Egyptians. He made an endeavor to establish a tradition in Egypt. He banished foreign interference and foreign ideologies. He made attempts to implement the Indian system. He wanted his country to be entirely united like a family with the head taking the responsibility to rule it.[br /]
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On February 4, 1971, Sadat was to address the National Assembly. He had started the peace proposals. He was thinking in terms of bringing the differences between the US and Israel national interests to the forefront. He initiated a peace inquiry. Ali Sabri, Vice President of Egypt, opposed Sadat's approach with the help of Arab Socialist Union. When Sadat was making attempts to find solid support for his policies with the National Assembly, members of the inner circle like Ali Sabri and Sharawi Gomaa were against him. Ali Sabri accused Sadat, during a meeting of the central committee of the Arab Socialist Union, of trying to interrupt and interfere with his freedom of speech. It was a false accusation. On May 1971, Sadat acted decisively, relieving Ali Sabri from his post as Vice President. Ali Sabri had no mass support, which was proved when there was no public reaction when he was removed from his post.[br /]
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[b]Sadat in the Soviet Capital[/b][br /]
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Sadat visited Moscow on March 1, 1971, with a three-fold purpose. First, he wanted to arrange a joint political and military strategy with the Russians. Second, he wanted Russia to send arms to Egypt comparable to what Israel got from the USA. Third, he wanted to know the quantum of arms supplies and the speed with which he could expect them from the Russians. The Soviet leaders were prepared to give the arms and ammunition provided he used them only after the clearance from Moscow. The Soviet leaders did not want to come into the picture of war and so they advised Sadat to keep the arms and ammunition without using it or he could use it only after taking the supplies out of Moscow. Sadat wanted his own authority to use the supplies. So he immediately rejected this condition.[br /]
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The year 1971 was not a year of decision for Egypt. Egypt lacked the military supplies. The military plans were also to be given a final shape. Sadat had become impatient. He wanted more intimate Soviet participation in operational plans as well as supply of weapons and equipments. He decided to try Moscow once again and arranged a visit to the capital of Russia on February 2, 1972. Luck favored Sadat. He received an offer from Faisal, of 20 fighter-bombers bought from UK. The move appeared to have some effects on the Soviet Union and it decided to provide some tanks.[br /]
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Certain guidelines were laid before the October war between Israel and Egypt. Russians were to be kept out of the area and out of active participation in the affairs of war. They wanted to keep various strands of negotiation separate. Negotiations between Israel and Egypt, Israel and Syria, Israel and Palestinians were to be carried out separately and not as a part of an overall settlement.[br /]
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[b]War and its Aftermath[/b][br /]
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As soon as Sadat was convinced of the inevitability of war, he thought about the pros and cons of it. He went about it in a businesslike manner. Elaborate security precautions were taken so that least number of people knew the plans to launch the crossing operations across the Suez Canal. During the five years from 1967 to 1973, Egypt had spent $9,000 million on the war efforts at Ramadan. The intensity of the campaign, the quantity of weapons used and the sheer bloodiness of the battles, the Ramadan war has no parallel in history. October 6, 1973 was a doomsday. Four thousand guns and mortars on the Egyptian front and 1,500 on the Syrian front opened up on Israeli position. Eight thousand troops in 1,000 rubber boats crossed the Suez Canal. The Egyptian army captured the defense of the Barley line. The Syrian advance was also equally impressive. The Israelis were late in their mobilization. Their negligence and disregard for Arab armies made them pay the price. The Arab armies though knocked Israel off balance between October 6 to 9; it failed to capture the passes and the whole of Sinai. October 9 to 14 was a slogging match resulting in misunderstandings, mistakes and mutual accusations.[br /]
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Though US had provided Israel with sophisticated new weapons like the smart bombs and the camera bombs to use against Egyptian missile launchers, it was defeated.[br /]
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After a long struggling war, US secretary, Henry Kissinger proposed peace. Sadat replied to him that he was a man of peace. Had they accepted 1971 initiative, no war would have broken out. Peace negotiations were carried out between Israel and Egypt with the help of the US. All the forces were withdrawn stage by stage. Everything gradually came to standstill. There were no more sounds of bombers and missile launchers; no more loss of innocent lives. After the war, Sadat became Prime Minister of Egypt. For two years he carried out the activities for the welfare of his motherland but then resigned. He regained his Presidency. For eight years, Suez Canal had not functioned. In June 1975, Sadat reopened it for world traffic.[br /]
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[b]An Interview on Cairo TV[/b][br /]
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On December 25, 1975, Sadat's 57th birthday, he gave an interview on Cairo TV. He spoke about the years he had spent in his village of Meit Abul Kom. He spoke of his teacher who taught him holy Quran and of his grandmother, who, though lacked formal education, had acquired wisdom. He spoke of his beliefs, hopes and fears. He revealed the story of Egypt and her revolution. In his New Year list of plans, liberation of Sinai was at the top, followed by it was achieving social security for every Egyptian national, no matter whether it was a nearby town or a far off village.[br /]
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From his interview one can make out that he was never too busy to attend the funeral of his teacher in his village and to spend an afternoon with the family of a soldier who had sacrificed his life in Ramadan war.[br /]
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[b]In Israel[/b][br /]
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Sadat wanted to make Egypt a non-aligned country. So he continued to direct it as one. He did not form any military alliance with either of the superpowers, the USA or the USSR. He made attempts to maintain the interest of the people of Egypt and the world as a whole. Willing to retain peace and to break down the obstacles of abhorrence and mistrust between the Arabs and Jews, Sadat decided to make a bold move. He asked the Israelis for a permission to visit their country. He visited Jerusalem on November 19, 1977. On reaching there, he realized the deep feelings for the city. He had an emotional attachment not with just a part of the city but the entire Jerusalem. The Prime Minister of Israel, Menachem Begin as well as the people of Israel were highly impressed with Sadat's courage. He was given a warm welcome. In Jerusalem, he prayed at a Mosque and also addressed the Israeli parliament. There he declared to live with them on permanent peace based on justice.[br /]
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On April 28, 1976, a news report stated that Egypt and Russia had signed a trade protocol representing the debt repayment to Moscow. According to the protocol, the spare parts of the equipments were to be provided to Russia. Though China's own capability to provide the spares and other equipments was limited, it had agreed to aid Egypt.[br /]
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[b]Camp David Accord[/b][br /]
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Representatives of both the countries met several times at the end of 1977 and in the first half of 1978, but of no avail. American president, Jimmy Carter invited both Sadat and Begin for a face to face meet in the US. Negotiations for peace settlement took place and after a several meetings in Camp David, they were able to sign an accord known as Camp David Accord. Israel would return the entire Sinai to Egypt. By December 17, both the countries were required to conclude a peace treaty. Israel was supposed to begin its military withdrawal from Sinai within three to nine months and at the end of three years final withdrawal should occur. Israel would maintain troops in two regions, West Bank and Gaza Strip, but the numbers would be sharply reduced. The Camp David Accord also stated that as soon as the Arab self-governing unit was established, Israel military government should be withdrawn. The treaty was a success and almost all the disputes between Israel and Arab countries ended. Lasting peace and justice would have developed in Middle East, had other countries participated in solving the problems.[br /]
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[b]The Peace Prize[/b][br /]
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In 1979, both, the President of Egypt, Anwar Sadat and Prime Minister of Israel, Menachem Begin were awarded Nobel Peace Prize. Jimmy Carter, US President should have shared this prize, as he was instrumental in getting the two leaders to sign an accord at Camp David.[br /]
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Anwar Sadat has also contributed into the world of letters by writing various titles like The Full Story of the Revolution, Unknown Pages of the Revolution, Son, This Is Your Uncle Gamal, In Search of Self.[br /]
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[b]Death[/b][br /]
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Sadat's new relationships with the west and his peace treaty generated domestic opposition among the fundamentalist Moslem group. In 1980 and 1981, Sadat made desperate attempts to respond to the new internal problems. He provided loans to improve everyday life. He enacted laws that would benefit the Egyptians. Despite his efforts, fundamentalists were against him. On October 6, 1981, Anwar Sadat, while celebrating the eighth anniversary of the 1973 war, was assassinated by fundamentalists.[br /]
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An Arab leader, every inch an Egyptian - simple, friendly and hospitable. Anwar Sadat made ceaseless efforts in achieving his goals, namely establishing social justice and peace in his motherland. He made striving attempts to build in the people of Egypt, a faith that could enable them to assail their triple enemy: imperialism, monarchy and feudalism.[br /]
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An Egyptian statesman, born in the village of Meit Abul Kom, Egypt, was a member of the Revolution Command Council and a Minister of State, Vice President, President and above all, the Prime Minister of Egypt. He had also remained Egypt's representative of the Islamic conference. In 1975, he had been the member of the Higher Council on Nuclear Energy. He initiated peace negotiations with Israel for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace.[br /]
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Here is an insight to Sadat's life and his endeavor to face difficulties and challenges thronged upon him.[br /]
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[b]December 25, 1918[/b][br /]

Anwar Sadat was born in the village of Meit Abul Kom in the delta of the river Nile.[br /]
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[b]1923[/b][br /]

Anwar joined a local Moslem school.[br /]
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[b]1931[/b][br /]

Was admitted to secondary school Faud - I.[br /]
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[b]October 6, 1936[/b][br /]

Entered the War College.[br /]
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[b]1939[/b][br /]

Founded the Free Officers Organization.[br /]
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[b]1940[/b][br /]

Married Ekbal Madi.[br /]
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[b]1942[/b][br /]

Was arrested and imprisoned by the British.[br /]
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[b]October 1944[/b][br /]

Escaped from the prison and remained a fugitive for the next year.[br /]
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[b]September 1945[/b][br /]

Involved in the underground movement against the ruler.[br /]
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[b]January 12, 1946[/b][br /]

Arrested again and put in solitary confinement.[br /]
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[b]July 1948[/b][br /]

Released from prison.[br /]
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[b]August 1948 [/b][br /]

Went to Suez.[br /]
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[b]May 29, 1949[/b][br /]

Sadat married Gihan after his divorce from Ekbal.[br /]
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[b]1953[/b][br /]

Became the editor of the newspaper El Gomhouria.[br /]
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[b]1954[/b][br /]

Became Minister of State.[br /]
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[b]1954[/b][br /]

Designated as Egypt's representative to the Islamic Conference.[br /]
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[b]1955[/b][br /]

Visited India.[br /]

Resigned from the Revolution Command Council.[br /]
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[b]December 20, 1969[/b][br /]

Anwar Sadat was appointed Vice President of Egypt.[br /]
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[b]1970 [/b][br /]

Death of Nasser.[br /]
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[b]September 30, 1970[/b][br /]

Took over as the President.[br /]
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[b]December 1970[/b][br /]

Elected President.[br /]
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[b]February 4, 1971[/b][br /]

Sadat initiated a peace inquiry.[br /]
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[b]October 6, 1973[/b][br /]

Launched an attack against Israel.[br /]
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[b]June 1975[/b][br /]

Re-opened the Suez Canal.[br /]
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[b]1977[/b][br /]

Visited Israel.[br /]
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[b]1979[/b][br /]

Was awarded Nobel Prize for Peace.[br /]
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[b]October 6, 1981[/b][br /]

Assassinated during a military review.[br /]
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[b]P[/b]eace is more precious than a piece of land.[br /]
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[b]T[/b]here can be hope only for a society which acts as one big family, not as many separate ones.[br /]
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[b]H[/b]e who cannot change the very fabric of his thought will never be able to change reality and will never therefore make any progress.[br /]
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[b]T[/b]rust in Allah, but tie your camel.[br /]
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[b]I[/b]t is possible for human beings to put ideals above self-interest…[br /]
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[b]W[/b]herever I go, I always know that I have living roots there, deep down in the soil of my village, like the trees and the plants.[br /]
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[b]B[/b]e loyal to your real entity within you, great suffering builds up a human being and puts him within reach of self-knowledge.[br /]
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[b]L[/b]ove is the only force capable of putting down barriers which may stand between matter and spirit, visible and invisible, individual and god.[br /]
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[b]I[/b] declare to the whole world that we accept to live with you in permanent peace, based on justice.[br /]

- Addressing the Israeli parliament.[br /]
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[b]A[/b]s long as there is an Israeli soldier on my land, I am not ready to contact anyone in Israel at all.[br /]
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[b]W[/b]e must all rise above all forms of obsolete theories of superiority and the most important thing is never to forget that infallibility is the prerogative of God alone.[br /]
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[b]N[/b]ever have I spoken, nor will I ever speak with two tongues; never have I adopted, nor will I ever adopt two policies. I never deal with anyone except in one tongue, one policy and with one face.[br /]
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[b]F[/b]ear is, I believe, a most effective tool in destroying the soul of an individual - and the soul of the people.[br /]
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Comments - Anwar Sadat