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Detail of Biography - Christopher Columbus
Name :
Christopher Columbus
Date :
Views :
488
Category :
Birth Date :
30/10/1451
Birth Place :
Genoa, Italy.
Death Date :
May 20, 1506
Biography - Christopher Columbus
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[b]Christopher Columbus[/b] was born on October 30, 1451 in the Italian port city of Genoa, on the coast of the Ligurian Sea. His Italian name was Cristoforo Colombo, while Cristobal Colon was Spanish and Christovao Colom was his Portuguese name. He is generally referred to as Christopher Columbus, his English name. He was a Genoese by origin.[br /]
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He was the eldest of five children. His father was Domenico Colombo, a wool weaver who was also involved in the local politics, and his mother was Suzanna Fontanarossa who was the daughter of a wool weaver herself. They were five siblings in all. Christopher was the eldest and had three younger brothers – Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino, Giacomo, and a sister, Bianchinetta.[br /]
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His family moved to the nearby port city of Savona, to the west of Genoa, in 1470. He joined his father’s business of wool processing and selling at a very young age, though he did not find the job as exciting as his young and imaginative mind would have desired, and he would dream of adventurous sea voyages and fantastic foreign lands. These were the factors for which he developed an interest and started to learn cartography.[br /]
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[b]Christopher[/b] got along especially well with his brother, Bartolomeo, with whom he had more than one thing in common. The brothers shared a passion for cartography, a skill for which they studied together, and they would also collaborate later in the trade of selling books. By the time that he had reached manhood, he was already literate, an accomplishment possible because of the primary lessons recieved from parish priests.[br /]
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During an age when young men were generally expected to follow their father's trade, which for young Christopher would be the wool trade; it was nevertheless not uncommon for the young lads of Savona, a major port city, to start their careers as seafarers. But Christopher had started his apprenticeship for becoming a seaman even before his family moved to Savona. At the age of 14, he had already assumed the role of messenger, and ship's boy.[br /]
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This young sailor boy who dreamt of long voyages to distant and fantastic lands got the chance he was waiting for in 1474. He became a part of a ship sailing in the service of the Spenola family of financiers, who had been patrons of his father in Genoa. He was engaged for a year as a sailor on the ship which was bound towards the Island of Khios in the Aegean Sea, an arm of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. This was his first long voyage and must have proved profitable since he gained economic independence from his family. Except for a brief return to make plans for his next adventure, never again would Columbus return to Savona to live.[br /]
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As Genoa retreated to the background so did his association with his family’s wool weaving business. Columbus spent a year in Chios and could hardly have remained immune to the political, commercial, and religious turmoil throughout the area. The Greek islands were within the sphere of the influence of Constantinople, which had fallen twenty years earlier to the
Turks. The great irony is that his trip to the Aegean island brought him the closest he would ever get to Asia.[br /]
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On August 13, 1476, a Genoese commercial expedition of five ships bound for England gave Columbus his first opportunity to leave the familiar Mediterranean Sea and sail into the unknown waters of the Atlantic Ocean. But it turned out to be an inauspicious beginning for a man who would become Admiral of the Ocean Seas. Having passed through the Straits of Gibraltar without incident, the entire fleet came under attack by French privateers off the Cape of St. Vincent. Both sides lost ships; Columbus, one of the unfortunate ones whose ship was burned, had no escape other than to swim to shore. [br /]
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That he survived, his son would later boast, was "because he was a prodigious swimmer." Six miles from shore, he made it to land by clinging to wreckage. After regaining his strength in the Port of Lagos, without money or position, Columbus made his way to Lisbon’s large Genoese community of merchants and shipbuilders. He was twenty-five years old. [br /]
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By 1477 Columbus resided in Lisbon. To someone born and raised in a Mediterranean sea port, his new home must have seemed magical, alive with anticipation. Sitting at the mouth of the Tagus River, Lisbon’s rhythm was that of the crashing ocean at its doorstep. Thrusting into the Atlantic, facing water on two sides, Portugal had become a center for maritime activity. Since the time of Prince Henry the Navigator’s explorations down the coast of Africa, Lisbon was a haven for explorers, adventurers, entrepreneurs, merchants and any others who saw their fortunes tied to the trade winds and ocean currents. Soon Columbus’ brother Bartolomeo would be in Lisbon, as well, working as a mapmaker and studying geography. [br /]
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At times, the brothers worked side-by-side as draftsmen in the map-making business and as book collectors. But he soon realized that trade as a map-maker was not a lucrative position, so he decided to go back to sea and in 1478, he gained more Atlantic experience by sailing to Madeira to purchase sugar commissioned as an agent for Italian merchants. A lawsuit stemming from this voyage was what forced him to return to Genoa in 1479 to testify. Columbus once again returned to Lisbon and resumed his chartmaking duties for his brother. In his spare time he would frequent sailors' haunts, located in the sizeable Genovese colony in Lisbon, to hear their tales of the high seas.[br /]
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The port of Lisbon was the merchandise market of Europe at that time. Portuguese ships carried a flourishing trade between Lisbon and England, Ireland, Iceland, Madeira, the Azores and Africa. Ships from every country in Europe would make their stop there to unload goods and take on supplies.[br /]
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Not far from Columbus' brother's chartmaking shop was a convent where the daughters of Portuguese nobility were schooled, and where young men would go courting. It was in the convent's chapel that Columbus met his future wife, Dona Felipa Perestrello y Moniz, the daughter of Isabel Moniz and deceased Bartolomeo Perestrello. [br /]
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Perestrello had been a seagoing man, and was appointed hereditary governor of Porto Santo, a small island 30 miles northeast of Madeira, by Prince Henry. Both sides of Felipa's family were illustrious, her grandfather on her mother's side was one of the richest seigniories of the Algarve and her father descended from the noble Italian Pelestrellos of Piacenza (Emilia Romagna - Italy's food valley). [br /]
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Bartolomeo Perestrello had died in 1457 and his wife and daughter moved from Porto Santo to Lisbon where Felipa met Columbus. After their marriage, Columbus and his wife continued to live in Lisbon. His marriage was one that was important to him for two reasons: one was that it was a marriage of love, Felipa and Christopher were deeply in love with each other. The second one was that by virtue of his marriage, Columbus acquired Portuguese citizenship and, therefore, the right to trade in all Portuguese overseas possessions. He sailed the north and south Atlantic from Iceland to Africa, learned the currents, travelled various routes and eventually integrated their lessons into a scheme for re-establishing direct trade with Asia by sailing west.[br /]
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Eventually, Columbus, his wife and mother-in-law shifted their residence to Porto Santo in the Madeira islands, to live with Dona Felipa's brother who had inherited his father's governorship. While in Porto Santo, Columbus heard many seafaring stories such as that of the pilot who saw, far west of Cape St. Vincent, a strange piece of wood that had not been carved by iron and that had been blown by the west wind from unknown islands across the ocean and of mariners venturing beyond the Azores and Canaries, and had seen islands on the horizon.[br /]
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It can be said that Columbus was one husband who seemed to have had more reason than most to bless his mother-in-law. While on Porto Santo, Dona Isabel recognized her son-in-law's restless interest in everything about oceanic voyaging and distant lands. It is said that she "gave him the journals and sea charts left by her husband," and a result Columbus's passion was "still more inflamed." It is also believed that it was the papers of Bartolomeo Perestrello, who had sailed for Prince Henry, and the information from Portuguese seamen that fixed Columbus' mind on the westward ocean crossing.[br /]
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While on Porto Santo, he enjoyed spending evenings on the beach with Felipa. Columbus had a fine tenor voice and loved singing the mournful fados (a Portuguese song typically accompanied by guitar). His first son, Diego was probably born on the island in 1480. Unfortunately, his wife, Felipa, succumbed to an illness soon after the birth of her son.[br /]
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[b]Europe in the Days of Columbus[/b][br /]
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During the fifteenth century, there were immense conflicts between the Christians and the Muslims. The city of Constantinople (today known as Istanbul, Turkey) was the capital of the orthodox Christian Byzantine Empire and was conquered by the Muslim Ottoman Turks. It was a major trade centre between Europe and Asia. The European merchants bought Asian goods through Muslims, but did not wish to do so because of their conflicts with them.[br /]
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Also, the European princes and kings realized that, the country that discovered the new route to Asia first would be the one to become wealthy in a very short time by monopolizing trade with the Asians. These two major factors: The desire to see the fall of Constantinople and establish a trading route with Asians, encouraged the navigators to explore a new sea-route.[br /]
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The commission investigated all material set forth by Columbus. Even educated persons in those days nurtured the belief that the Earth’s Surface was mostly flat. It was Portugal which was the first nation to discover the new sea-route. The Portuguese had conquered the northern African region and the Muslim commercial centre of Ceuta on the Strait of Gibraltar. They had also begun exploring the western coast of Africa and were hoping to find a route to Asia. It was in this scenario of extensive discoveries that Christopher Columbus entered this world.
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[b]The Enterprise Of The Indies[/b][br /]
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Europeans in 14th century referred to all lands to the east of the Indus River in Asia as Indies. Columbus made a plan to reach the east by travelling through the west. This plan was called Enterprise of the Indies.[br /]
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Columbus’ mother-in-law, Dona Isabel, had given him numerous nautical instruments and charts which had belonged to her husband. He gathered information on oceans, maps and charts revealing ocean currents, interviews of sailors, etc. These gifts would be of immense importance to him as they provided him with all the necessary information that he would need to set out on his voyage.[br /]
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His attachment to the Genoese community in Portugal also must have been a significant advantage. He knew many people who had taken several expeditions to Africa in the past. Therefore, he had access to a thorough knowledge of the waters of the Atlantic. He also came to know about the Canary Current from his trip near the Canary Islands. [br /]
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He had heard stories of lands to the west of Iceland, which inspired him to travel to the east. Columbus accumulated information of voyages undertaken during the past thousand years. In ancient times, Greeks and Romans believed that there was only one body of water on the surface of the earth and that water connects Europe and Asia. If this was true then one could theoretically sail from the west to reach east. [br /]
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The size of earth and distance between Europe and Asia was calculated from the manuscript – Geography by Ptolemy, Imago Mundi (Image of the World) by Pierre d’Ailly and The Travels and Marco Polo, written in 1298 after Marco Polo returned from China.[br /]
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Columbus made two mistakes. First, he assumed that the Asian continent stretched much farther to the east than it actually does, and Japan was located about 2400 km to the east of the Asian mainland. His calculations also showed an underestimation of the circumference of the earth. Columbus estimated Canary Island, which is about 19,000 km from Japan, to be at a distance of 4,440 km. Columbus and another well-known geographer, Paulo de Pozzo, made these errors.[br /]
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[b]Appeal To The Portuguese Monarch[/b][br /]
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The Portuguese crown had always inspired and supported explorers. King John II was himself interested in sailing. In 1484, Columbus approached the king with the proposal to sail to the east through the west. The king considered his proposal and passed it on to his Council of Geographical Affairs, which later rejected the proposal. The reason given for its rejection was the expense that would be incurred and also that Columbus was uncertain about the distances and measurements.[br /]
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[b]Appeal To The Spanish Monarch[/b][br /]
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After rejection of the proposal by the Portuguese crown, he moved to Spain in 1485. At that time Spain was ruled by King Ferdinand V and Queen Isabella I. Columbus presented the same proposal to the Spanish Monarchs. Spain lagged far behind Portugal in exploration of the Atlantic. The two powers had engaged in open hostilities since Spain had begun to dispute some of Portugal’s claims in Africa and to Atlantic island groups, such as the Canaries and the Azores. In 1479, Spain had gained control of the Canary Island, although Portugal did not abandon its claims. [br /]
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A fragile peace existed because neither side wanted to go to war over the issue. One of the reasons why the Portuguese king rejected Columbus’s plan was his concern over aggravating the situation with Spain. [br /]
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In Spain, Columbus settled at the monastery of La Rabida, which was in the southern port town of Palos de La Frontera. He and his son, Diego, had received support from many local monks. [br /]
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Among them, Antonio Marchena, introduced Columbus to Juan Perez who was one of the guardians of the monastery and confessor of Queen Isabella. Juan Perez took Columbus to the court of the Spanish Monarchs, where he had presented his idea of travelling from west to reach east. Although the king and queen were interested in the plan, they could not pay much attention to it. They wanted to conquer the territory of Granada, located in southern Spain, which was ruled by the Moors. This war prevented the king and queen from taking any decision till 1487. Finally, a committee heard the plans of Columbus and raised several questions. But even this time, the plan was rejected. The reason cited by the committee was a simple one: The ocean was just too large to cross. Columbus did not give up hope.[br /]
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In the meantime, he established liaison with a woman named, Beatriz Enriquez de Arana. They never married but they gave birth to Ferdinarel, a son, who joined his father on his Voyage to America. Once again Columbus appealed for acceptance of his plan, but this time too, he was unfortunate.[br /]
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This time it was rejected due to his excessive demands for rewards. His demands were one-tenth of all riches from the Indies, the title of Admiral, which would bless him with power to judge any commercial dispute and also the title of Viceroy that would make him representative of the monarchs. [br /]
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He also demanded to be given the right to govern, so that he could act as supreme civil and military monarch for any land that he would discover. At last the king and the queen revised their decision and negotiated a contract, which gave him right to depart from Palos de La Frontera. He left for his First Voyage to discover ‘Indies’ in August 1492.[br /]
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Christopher Columbus, with his virtue of unrelenting endurance, iron-willed fortitude, and an inner dedication towards his goal would make Four Great Voyages; journeys which would immortalize his name in the annals of history for undertaking ventures that would hundreds of years later be compared to only one other undertaking: Space travel. Ventures urged on by the human trait of thirst for knowledge and the excitement of exploring the unknown.[br /]
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These voyages and the remainder of his life until death are described in detail in Voyages. [br /]
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The Portuguese crown had always inspired and supported explorers. King John II was himself interested in sailing. In 1484, Columbus approached the king with the proposal to sail to the east through the west. The king considered his proposal and passed it on to his Council of Geographical Affairs, which later rejected the proposal. The reason given for its rejection was the expense that would be incurred and also that Columbus was uncertain about the distances and measurements.[br /]
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[b]Appeal To The Spanish Monarch [/b] [br /]
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After rejection of the proposal by the Portuguese crown, he moved to Spain in 1485. At that time Spain was ruled by King Ferdinand V and Queen Isabella I. Columbus presented the same proposal to the Spanish Monarchs. Spain lagged far behind Portugal in exploration of the Atlantic. The two powers had engaged in open hostilities since Spain had begun to dispute some of Portugal’s claims in Africa and to Atlantic island groups, such as the Canaries and the Azores.[br /]
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In 1479, Spain had gained control of the Canary Island, although Portugal did not abandon its claims. A fragile peace existed because neither side wanted to go to war over the issue. One of the reasons why the Portuguese king rejected Columbus’s plan was his concern over aggravating the situation with Spain.[br /]
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In Spain, Columbus settled at the monastery of La Rabida, which was in the southern port town of Palos de La Frontera. He with his son, Diego, had received the support from many local monks. Among them, Antonio Marchena, introduced Columbus to Juan Perez who was one of the guardians of the monastery and confessor of Queen Isabella. Juan Perez took Columbus to the court of Spanish Monarchs, where he had presented his idea of travelling from west to reach east. Although the king and queen were interested in the plan, they could not pay much attention to it.[br /]
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They

wanted to conquer the territory of Granada, located in southern Spain, which was ruled by the Moors. This war prevented the king and queen from taking any decision till 1487. Finally, a committee heard the plans of Columbus and raised several questions. But this time too the plan was rejected. The justification given was that the ocean was too large to cross. Columbus did not give up hope.[br /]
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In the meantime, he established liaison with a woman named, Beatriz Enriquez de Arana. They never married but they gave birth to Ferdinarel, a son, who joined his father on his Voyage to America. Once again Columbus appealed for acceptance of his plan, but this time too, he was unfortunate.[br /]
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This time it was rejected due to his excessive demands for rewards. His demands were one-tenth of all riches from the Indies, the title of Admiral, which would bless him with power to judge any commercial dispute and also the title of Viceroy that would make him representative of the monarchs. He also demanded governership, so that he could act as supreme civil and military monarch for any land that he would discover. At last the king and the queen revised their decision and negotiated a contract, which gave him right to depart from Palos de La Frontera. He left for his First Voyage to discover ‘Indies’ in August 1492.[br /]
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Columbus began his first Voyage to reach the Indies at the west by navigating through the east. He started his Voyage with three ships.There is some myth prevailing about the crew selected, because at that time, sailors feared to undertake voyages to unknown places.[br /]
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Nevertheless, Columbus left on August 3, 1492. The Nina, owned by Juan Nino, was a lateen-rigged caravel, was captained by Martin Alonzo Pinzon. The Pinta, owned by Cristobal Quintero, was a square-rigged caravel captained by Pinzon's brother, Vicente Yanez. The Santa Maria, a nao, was Columbus' flagship. The nao was large and had a round hull compared to the lightly built caravels with narrow hulls. The Santa Maria was slow and unwieldy during the long ocean voyage.[br /]
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She had a huge square sail on her main mast, a smaller one on the foremast, and a lateen-rigged sail on the mizzen mast on the high poop at the stern. These ships were fitted out at Palos on the Tinto river, located in southern Spain. It cannot be said for sure, but there is some evidence advocate that the Nina and the Pinta were nearly 21 to 24 metres long, weighing 54 metric tonnes each, while Santa Maria weighed 80 metric tonnes. The three ships together carried 104 men with equipment for repairing ships, and supplies. They reached the Canary Islands by travelling from the northwest African land, rather than sailing through west of the Azores, Columbus had the Nina converted to square sails because it was lagging behind. The crews loaded fresh water and fruit aboard. On September 6, 1492, from San Sebastin de la Gomerce, the ships got underway, sailing into uncharted seas, out of sight of land.[br /]
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Columbus' ships covered approximately 150 miles a day. His seafaring instincts were extraordinary. His crews used a compass for direction and a chip log (a knotted line with a wooden weight attached at the end) to measure speed.[br /]
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A sailor counted how many knots were let off the reel in the time allotted. Multiplying the average rate of a ship's speed by a fixed amount of time gave a rough estimate of the distance traveled. Columbus, however, relied on dead reckoning, meaning he used his experience, intuition, observations, and guesswork to determine his ships' positions.}[br /]
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On October 12, one of the crew on Pinta shouted Tierra ! Tierra ! (Land ! Land !). Columbus had declared a reward of 10,000 Maravedis per year to anyone who first sighted land. The land sighted by the crew of Pinta was San Salvador, but not that which Columbus had aimed for. So after spending a little time there, they moved towards Cipango.[br /]
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After sailing for a few months, he turned his ships towards the southeast. On their way, the fleet faced devastating winds, which carried them to Haiti (Hispaniola). There he found gold and gems in abundance. He carried the wealth along with him. From there, he took the help of the Taino Indian chief, Guacanagari, to set his ships at the northern coast of the Island, which he named, La Navidad. In La Navidad, he assigned 40 men to take care of his wealth, while he proceeded further.[br /]
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In January 1493 he set out for Spain. After reaching Spain, he met the King and Queen in Barcelona. He exhibited the gold and gems, which were in the form of coins, masks, and ornaments. This adventure earned him the title of "Admiral of the Ocean" and he was rewarded 1000 Doubloons or 345,000 Maravedis.[br /]
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[b]THE SECOND VOYAGE [/b] [br /]
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After the success of the First Voyage, he faced little trouble in acquiring permission for the Second Voyage from the king and the queen. The fleet left Cadiz on September 25, 1493. They sailed via Gomera in the Canaries, taking the southern route. This time the time taken for the journey was 21 days. [br /]
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They reached Dominica first, then the Leeward Islands, touching the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico before eventually reaching Hispaniola, approximately in the last week of November. One shipmate named Cuneo said, "Since Genoa was Genoa, there was never born a man so well equipped and expert in navigation as the said Lord Admiral". As soon as Columbus reached Hispaniola, he found all his men whom he had left behind dead and the fort destroyed. The Spanish crew had mistreated the Indians, and the natives retaliated with violence. Columbus established the first colony of Santo Domingo and became the governor of the island.[br /]
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He ordered his subordinate to leave the place with all the wealth. He posted Alonso de Ojeda and Pedro Margarit to protect his other belongings. In March, Columbus arrived in Cuba and constructed the fortress of St Thomas there. He also went to Jamaica for a few days and then returned to Cuba. On leaving Cuba, he found the southern coast to be dotted with shoals and small islands, which made their voyage difficult.[br /]
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Then they had to face a very powerful headwind. On August 20, 1494 they sailed eastward, during which Columbus fell ill. By March 1495 they returned to Spain, with two ships. They arrived at Portugal in June, thus completing their Second Voyage. [br /]
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[b] THE THIRD VOYAGE [/b] [br /]
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The Third Voyage began from the port of Sanlucar on May 30, 1498. This time, there were six ships in the expedition. They reached Gomera in the Canary Islands via Porto Santo and Madeira. Among the six ships, three went to Hispaniola and the rest went on the expedition. They traveled to the west where they saw three hills behind the island. Columbus named the place Trinidad. He traveled through the Gulf of Praia, which is in between South America and Trinidad. After a month they again reached Hispaniola.[br /]
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The city of Santo Domingo, Hispaniola, had turned into the city of violence due to revolt. Columbus found it difficult to handle the whole situation. So on his request, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella appointed Francisco de Bobadilla as commissioner of that city. This new commissioner possessed more powers than Columbus. In a very short time, he arrested Columbus under charges of misadministration and sent him behind bars to Spain.[br /]
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[b]THE FOURTH VOYAGE [/b] [br /]
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In prison, Columbus wrote a letter to the King and the Queen of Spain. He defended himself against the charges laid on him and explained his views on the strong actions taken. In response, the Spanish Monarch excused his mistakes and freed him from prison. On May 11, 1502 he started the Fourth Voyage with four ships and 140 men from the Port of Cadiz. Columbus’s brother Bartholomew and his son Fernando joined him in his Fourth Voyage. He arrived at Santo Domingo on June 29,1502. He camped for a few days on the port and then left for the Honduras coast. [br /]
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After crossing Panama, he returned to Rio Belen (western Panama) and established his headquarters there for exploration. As he made preparations to return to Spain, a large force of Indians attacked his garrison. All three of his ships were badly damaged by the Indians, however, he dared to take those ships in waters. They faced another storm, off the coast of Cuba, which damaged their ships. Finally Columbus anchored the sinking ship in St Anne’s Bay of Jamaica. Columbus finished his Fourth Voyage on November 7, 1504 and returned to Spain.[br /]
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After two years, he fell ill and died on May 20, 1506 at Valladolid. His remains were later interred to Seville, then transferred to Santo Domingo, moved to Havana, Cuba, and finally returned to Seville in 1899. Though some historians do think that the bones removed from Santo Domingo were not his, his remains may still be there. [br /]
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Wherever Columbus rests, modern research has considerably diminished the heroic reputation he had gained by the 19th century, although his maritime skills continue to be celebrated.[br /]
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Even after five centuries, Christopher Columbus remains a figure shrouded in mystery and controversy; a persona who has been described in a variety of ways; that of one of the greatest mariners in history, a visionary genius, mystic, national hero, failed administrator, naïve entrepreneur, and a ruthless and greedy imperialist.[br /]
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His enterprise to find a westward route to Asia grew out of the practical experience of a long and varied maritime career, as well as out of his considerable reading of geographical and theological literature. Initially, he tried unsuccessfully to enlist support for his project.[br /]
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Later, through a combination of good luck and persuasiveness, he gained support of the Spanish Monarchs. He finally broke tradition in 1492, sailing west in an attempt to find a shorter route to India and China. He based his calculations for the journey on Biblical scriptures, specifically the books of Esdras in the Apocrypha. On August 3,1492 Columbus departed from Palos, Spain, on the first of several voyages to what he later called the New World.[br /]
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The final months of his life were marked by illness and vain attempts to secure restitution from King Ferdinand of all his privileges; nevertheless, by then, Columbus was quite wealthy.[br /]
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• October 30, 1451 Born in Genoa, Italy.[br /]
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• 1476 To escape from the clutches of French Privateers, he swam ashore to the Portuguese coast.[br /]

Later he worked with his brother in Lisbon. [br /]
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• 1477-82 Made merchant voyages.[br /]
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• 1484 Conceived of the voyage to the east via the west coined as The Enterprise of the Indies.[br /]
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• 1485 Moved to Spain.
The First Voyage [br /]
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• 1492 Departed from Palos, Spain with ships Santa Maria, Nina and Pinta.[br /]

New World sighted by his colleague Rodrigo de Triana, somewhere in the Bahamas.[br /]

Traveled to Cuba and Hispaniola.[br /]

Discovered La Navidad.[br /]

Arrived in Lisbon, Portugal.[br /][br /]
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[b]The Second Voyage[/b][br /]
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• 1493 Dominica Island sighted at daybreak.
Guadeloupe was also seen shortly.[br /]

Founded a new colony at La Isabela.[br /]
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• 1494 Reached Hispaniola.[br /]
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• 1496 Reached the coast of Portugal.[br /]
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[b]The Third Voyage [/b] [br /]
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• 1497 Started journey from La Isabela and returned to La Isabela making stopovers at Cuba and Jamaica.[br /]
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• 1498 Departed from Sanlucar, Spain and arrived at Gomera (Canary Island).[br /]

Arrived at Cape Verde later reaching Trinidad.
Journeyed from Trinidad to Hispaniola.[br /]
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• 1500 Sent behind bars in Spain.
The Fourth Voyage[br /]
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• 1502 Departed from Cadiz, Spain and arrived at Santo Domingo, Hispaniola.[br /]
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• 1503 Founded a garrison at Rio Belen.
Indians attacked the garrison forcing them to leave Rio Belen. [br /]

Ships abandoned at Jamaica.[br /]
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• 1504 Crew rescued from Jamaica.
Columbus returned to Spain.[br /]
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• May 20, 1506 He died at Valladolid. [br /]
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[b]EXPLORATION TECHNIQUES WITH THEIR TOOLS[/b][br /]
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Compasses, astrolabes, hourglasses, maps and charts were used for navigation during the 15th century. A very popular method used during those times known as dead reckoning, was a method of sailing under familiar skies. Another method used was finding direction by mapping the location of stars.[br /]
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Astrolabe was used when sky was clear and the stars could be easily located. A metal disk along with a map of celestial bodies was used in this method. Any mariner could tell the location by positioning the stars on the astrolabe to match the stars and the sky.[br /]
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Columbus preferred the technique of dead reckoning. It determined the position of the ship after determining its starting and last known location. Calculations were made after determining direction of travel and the time taken to travel, to determine the new location of the ship. Distance traveled in an hour or day was calculated by dropping a floating object in the sea at the front of the ship and the time taken by the object to reach the rear side of the ship was noted.[br /]
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Knowing how long the ship was, they could also determine the speed at which the ship was travelling. Columbus was an expert navigator at interpreting the signs of nature, such as the behavior of birds, the smell of the air, and the condition of the seas and the color of the sky. He was also an expert at predicting hurricanes accurately.[br /]
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[b]EXPERIENCES DURING NAVIGATION [/b] [br /]
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During the 15th century, navigation was not an easy task. The ships were so small that there was no space to build quarters for the crew. The crew had to sleep wherever they found space. They spent time singing, praying, telling stories, eating and performing the daily chores and most of all waiting to reach their destination. Ships carried foodstuff such as water, salt, meat, live pigs and hens for the crew. They also carried rice, cheese and figs with them. Navigational instruments such as charts, compasses, magnets and maps were also found with them.[br /]
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[b] BOOK OF PRIVILEGES[/b][br /]
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The Book of Privileges is a collection of agreements between Columbus and the Crown of Spain, prepared in Seville in 1502. The document represents Columbus’ confirmation of the right to titles and agreement of distribution of wealth between him and the Spanish Crown. It also contains routine instructions and authorizations laid down by Columbus before leaving for the Third Voyage. All three copies have 36 common documents that defined the line of demarcation of Spanish and Portuguese exploration. This description of the line of demarcation is found in Papal Bull of May 4, 1493.[br /]
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Columbus was rewarded with the titles of :[br /]
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• The Admiral of the Ocean Seas.[br /]
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• The Viceroy of the Indies. [br /]
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• The Discoverer of the New World.[br /]
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