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Detail of Biography - LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN
Name :
LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN
Date :
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851
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Birth Date :
16/12/2020
Birth Place :
Bonn.
Death Date :
1827,March 26.
Biography - LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN
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[b]LIFE[/b][br /]
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Ludwig van Beethoven was born on December 16, 1770 in Bonn, Germany, and baptized on December 17. Interestingly enough, till his 40th year Beethoven suffered from what is famous as his ‘birth – year delusion’ - he claimed to have been born in 1772.[br /]
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[b]Family Antecedents[/b][br /]
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Bonn was the seat of the Archbishop-Elector of Cologne in the 18th century. Beethoven’s musically talented grandfather, Ludwig van Beethoven (Senior), had come from Flanders to settle in Bonn on the invitation of the Elector. He worked in the Elector’s choir, first as a baritone singer and then as Kapellmeister (band leader). He married a Bonn girl, Marie Poll. Of the several children they had, only one – Johann – survived.[br /]
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Beethoven’s father, Johann van Beethoven, also took to music but his abilities were mediocre. He managed to become a tenor singer in the Electoral Choir due to the influence of Ludwig Senior. He married Maria Magdalena Keverich Laym, daughter of the chief cook at the Court of the Elector of Treves, Ehrenbreitstein. They had seven children of whom only three survived – Ludwig, Caspar Karl and Nikolaus Johann. The Beethoven family lived in the poorer part of Bonn. The rough-hewn rebellious streak in Beethoven was the result of this early influence.[br /]
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[b]Education[/b][br /]
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Beethoven had little formal education. He studied at the Tironicium for four years and had to drop out at the age of 11. He managed to get a smattering of Latin and French, but he could never spell correctly in any language. He was later exposed to a few good books, ranging from Walter Scott’s novels to Persian poetry.[br /]
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[b]Early Musical Training[/b][br /]
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Beethoven’s training in music started when he was just four to five years old. His father wanted to make a child prodigy of his son like Mozart. He forced young Beethoven to practise on the piano for long hours, so much so that Beethoven would start crying. But over a period of time, Beethoven developed a taste for music. Johann was confident enough of his eight-year old son’s talent to display him in a public concert on March 26, 1778. The success of this concert encouraged him to arrange music lessons for the child with other teachers.[br /]
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The first tutor Beethoven had was Van den Eeden, a court organist too old to be of any help to him. The young Beethoven got to practise the organ everyday by playing for the morning mass in the churches of Bonn. His next tutor was Tobias Friedrich Pfieffer, a skilled pianist. Pfieffer and Johann would come late at night, totally drunk, and drag the poor little boy from bed to the piano. Beethoven found a better teacher in his maternal uncle Franz Rovantini who was the court violinist. But this came to an abrupt end with his death in 1781.[br /]
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[b]Court Apprenticeship[/b][br /]
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In late 1781, Beethoven became an apprentice of Christian Gottlob Neefe, the new court organist. Neefe trained Beethoven in playing the organ and the piano. He recognized his apprentice’s genius and made him his assistant as court organist in 1782. Neefe helped Beethoven publish his first composition Variations on a March by Dressler in 1783.[br /]
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In 1784, Maximilian Francis became the new Archbishop-Elector of Cologne. He was a man of culture deeply interested in music. He transformed Bonn into a culturally vibrant city and invited several opera companies to Bonn. This is how Beethoven became familiar with the works of such composers as Gluck and Salieri. The court now had an orchestra of 31 pieces. Beethoven was appointed to play the viola at the age of 14 and was later made the deputy court organist. He was paid a salary of 150 gulden a year.[br /]
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[b]Meeting Mozart[/b][br /]
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Beethoven’s blossoming talent brought him recognition, and in 1787, the Elector allowed him to go to Vienna to study musical composition under Mozart. Beethoven impressed Mozart with his inventiveness but the lessons did not last long. Mozart’s father had died and Beethoven himself had to rush back to Bonn where his mother was on her deathbed. His mother died of tuberculosis on July 17, and this caused untold grief to Beethoven.[br /]
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The grief of losing his wife and the progressive deterioration of his voice made Johann turn to alcohol even more. Incidentally, Beethoven’s grandfather and grandmother were also heavy drinkers, and he too acquired this addiction later in life. Beethoven had to take up the responsibility of the family and supplement his income by giving piano lessons to Eleonore and Lorenz, children of the deceased chancellor Joseph von Breuning. Intimate contact with this cultured family made him more refined.[br /]
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Through the Breuning family, Beethoven got several offers from wealthy families to teach music. Here he also came in contact with Count Ferdinand von Waldstein, a music lover. He used to gift money to Beethoven and told him that the gifts were from the Elector. Seeing the plight of the Beethoven family, he used his influence to get Beethoven’s father superannuated and half his pension paid directly to Beethoven.[br /]
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When the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II died in 1790, Waldstein asked Beethoven to compose the funeral ode. The performance had to be cancelled because the musicians found some of the passages too difficult to play. Beethoven also added a piece in honor of Leopold II who became the new emperor. He later dedicated his Piano Sonata No.21 in C Major, Opus 53, to Waldstein and named it after him.[br /]
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[b]Meeting Haydn[/b][br /]
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Franz Joseph Haydn, the greatest Viennese composer of the time stopped at Bonn on his way back from a successful trip to London in 1790. Beethoven met Haydn and presented a recently composed cantata. Haydn was suitably impressed and he offered to take him in as his student. The Elector permitted Beethoven to go to Vienna to study under Haydn and agreed to keep him on his payroll. Count Waldstein wrote the farewell message: ‘The spirit of Mozart is mourning and weeping over the death of her beloved. With the inexhaustible Haydn she found repose but no occupation. With the help of unremitting labor you shall receive Mozart’s spirit from Haydn’s hands’. Beethoven left for Vienna on November 1792. Napoleon’s army occupied Bonn soon after, and Beethoven never returned to the place of his birth.[br /]
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[b]Musical Training in Vienna[/b][br /]
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Beethoven arrived in Vienna as a promising young man of 22. He was short, stocky and dark-complexioned. He had an unattractive pockmarked face with a broad and flat nose, and deep-set eyes. His only weapon to conquer the new city, which had very high standards so far as music was concerned, was his musical talent. But the very next month his father died of dropsy of the heart. The Elector not only agreed to continue his share of the father’s pension, he even doubled it. He also granted three measures of grain for the education of his brothers who had moved in with him.[br /]
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Haydn started teaching Beethoven for a nominal fee. Soon Beethoven started deviating from the orthodox rules of composition as he found the accepted techniques inadequate. Haydn found these innovations unacceptable. Beethoven felt he didn’t have much to learn from Haydn, and therefore quit in 1793. He next went to the organist of St. Stephen’s Cathedral, Johann Georg Albrechtsberger, to learn counterpoint. These

lessons helped him to develop a comprehensive technique. Beethoven’s next teacher was Antonio Salieri, the director of the Vienna Opera. He trained Beethoven in vocal composition. Beethoven’s rebellious attitude towards formal musical theory was something that all his teachers found difficult to handle. A series of concerts in 1795 marked the end of Beethoven’s formal training in music.[br /]
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[b]The First Phase, 1792-1802[/b][br /]
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Most of the compositions of Beethoven in the first phase consist is of chamber music, based especially on the piano. Though he attempted to break away from the conventions, the influence of Haydn and Mozart is clearly seen in these early pieces. He always succeeded in surprising the audience by bringing in unexpected elements through techniques derived from improvisation.[br /]
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Beethoven’s first public performance was held at the Burgtheater on March 29 and 30, 1795 for the benefit of the widows of the Society of Tone Artists. At this first public appearance as a pianist in Vienna, he played his Opus 19, Piano Concerto No.2. He played the piano in a concert organized by Konstantine Mozart. He also wrote some of the dances for the ball of the Society of Fine Artists held on November 22. Beethoven played his own piano concerto at a grand musical concert given by Haydn at the Redoutensaal. Beethoven published his Opus 1, Three Trios for Piano, Violin and Cello on October 17, 1795. The world of music had discovered someone to carry on the legacy of Mozart.[br /]
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The occupation of Bonn by the French Revolutionary forces had resulted in the discontinuance of the financial aid to Beethoven. Beethoven had become famous as a pianist and he came to be regarded highly for his improvisations. He found two patrons in Vienna. Prince Karl Lichnowsky invited him regularly for his Friday musicals and provided him with free boarding and lodging for sometime. Later in 1799, Beethoven dedicated his Opus 13, Piano Sonata No.8 ‘Pathétique’ to him. He had a more enthusiastic patron in Prince Lobkowitz, himself a great violinist. In spite of quarrels, their relationship lasted lifelong.[br /]
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Beethoven went on concert tours to Berlin and Prague during the next three years. His plans for further tours had to be cancelled when Napoleon’s army neared Vienna in 1797. Beethoven contributed to the war effort by composing music for a war song Ein grosses deutsches Volk sind wir. The French army overran Vienna. But since Beethoven had Republican sympathies, he admired Napoleon. He had no qualms about attending the French ambassador General Bernadotte’s receptions. Beethoven presented his two major piano concerti, the Septet and the First Symphony in 1800, and the Moonlight Sonata in 1801.[br /]
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[b]Deafness: Heiligenstadt Testament[/b][br /]
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Beethoven began realizing even before 1800 that he was gradually becoming deaf. For a musician there could not be a greater calamity. He couldn’t muster enough strength to disclose this to the public. He became very irritable and stopped going to social functions. He first revealed his affliction to his close friends Franz Gerhard Wegeler and Carl Amanda in 1801. But Beethoven had not given up hope. He went to Heiligenstadt, a small village near Göttingen, whose sulfur baths were believed to have medicinal properties. One day he saw a shepherd playing a pipe but he could not hear anything. It was then that the severity and finality of his disorder struck him. He realized that he could hear only the louder sounds of an orchestra. On October 6, 1802, he wrote the Heiligenstadt Testament.[br /]
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Beethoven addressed the Heiligenstadt Testament to his brothers "to be read and executed after his death". But he never sent it to them, and it was discovered among his papers only after his death. The document shows how much he suffered in silence on knowing of the irreversible and progressive nature of his deafness. The loss of hearing implied he would neither be able to enjoy music nor revel in simple human company. The testament shows the strength of character of the man who faced the grim reality.[br /]
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[b]The Second Phase, 1803-1816[/b][br /]
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Beethoven took more and more to composing as his deafness became severe. There was no way he could play any of the compositions himself. His compositions in this phase were more adventurous in breaking from traditional norms. Beethoven composed most of the repertory works in the second phase of his artistic production.[br /]
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Just after writing the Testament, he composed his Second Symphony in November 1802. And in 1803 he composed the Third Symphony Eroica, one of his masterpieces. This marked the beginning of the second phase of his work, very original and not at all rooted in the traditional style.[br /]
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Beethoven considered Eroica to be the best of his symphonies. Being a Republican at heart he dedicated it originally to Napoleon. He thought Napoleon epitomized the Republican spirit. But later when Napoleon proclaimed himself emperor, he was utterly disappointed. The symphony was published in 1805 and its title was Sinfonia eroica per festeggiare il sovvenira d’ un gran uomo – "Heroic symphony to celebrate the memory of a great man". It was performed in the Theatre-an-der-Wien on April 7, 1805.[br /]
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On November 20, 1805, a week after Napoleon’s army had occupied Vienna, the premiere of Beethoven’s opera Leonore was held. Only a few French officers attended it. Beethoven shortened and revised it but the second attempt at its revival in 1806 also did not succeed. He withdrew it after two performances due to differences with the management. A third attempt at its revival eight years later, now named Fidelio, was a success.[br /]
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Following this Beethoven produced several works, most of which have become classics. He produced Piano Concerto No. 4, Apassionata and Razumovsky Quartets in quick succession. The premiere of two great symphonies, the Fifth and the Sixth, was held on December 22, 1808. Then he composed the most beautiful piano concerto, the Emperor.[br /]
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Beethoven received an offer in 1808 from the King of Westphalia, Jérôme Bonaparte, to become the Kapellmeister of the royal choir and orchestra at Cassel for a salary of 600 gold ducats per year. Archduke Rudolf dissuaded him from leaving Vienna by guaranteeing him an annual sum of 4,000 florins to be contributed by Prince Lobkowitz, Count Kinsky and himself.[br /]
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Beethoven made his last appearance as a performer at the piano in April 1814. He presented his clearest work Opus 97, a trio for piano, violin and violoncello. The Seventh and the Eighth Symphonies were also composed in this period. On December 8, 1813, Beethoven presented the Battle Symphony Die Schlacht von Vittoria to celebrate Wellington’s victory over Napoleon. The symphony became very popular, and for the first time Beethoven tasted real success. He encashed this popularity by organizing a benefit concert for himself at the Redoutensaal.[br /]
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[b]Love Life[/b][br /]
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Though Beethoven indulged in sexual transgressions as a youth in Bonn and ended up having syphilis, and had a marriage proposal rejected by Magdalena Willman in 1795, he got himself into serious affairs only in the second phase when he had relative financial security. The first woman he seriously considered marrying is believed to have been his 17-year-old student Countess Giulietta Guicciardi, in 1801. He had dedicated the Moonlight Sonata to her, but she married Count Gallenberg.[br /]
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Then in 1805 Beethoven proposed to Giulietta’s cousin Countess Josephine von Deym, who had been widowed the year before. They continued seeing each other for the next three years but it came to an end because of his own vacillation and the opposition from Josephine’s family.[br /]
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Beethoven next fell in love with Madame Marie Bigot in 1807. He apologized when her husband expressed his displeasure and that was the end of it. After this Beethoven had a serious affair with Therese Malfatti, another of his students. His plans to marry her also failed.[br /]
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These affairs of Beethoven were quite well known, but three interesting love letters were discovered after Beethoven’s death. Written by him, these letters carried no name or address, and were never sent. The identity of the woman could never be ascertained. Indications are that it was either Countess Guicciardi-Gallenberg or Countess Therese von Brunswig.[br /]
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[b]Meeting Goethe[/b][br /]
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The greatest living musician and the greatest living author met each other at Teplitz, a watering place in Bohemia in 1812. The two spent two delightful evenings together. On one of their walks together, they came across the Empress and the dukes. Goethe stood to one side deferentially with his hat off. Beethoven walked right through haughtily while the courtiers made way for him, and stood waiting for Goethe on the other side. He told Goethe, "I’ve waited for you because I honor and respect you as you deserve, but you did those there too much honor". Beethoven wrote later that Goethe was "too fond of the atmosphere of the court, more so than is becoming to a poet".[br /]
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On another of their walks, their conversation was being interrupted by passers-by greeting them. When Goethe showed exasperation, Beethoven said, "Do not let that trouble Your Excellency; perhaps the greetings are intended for me". Goethe wrote of Beethoven that he was an ‘utterly untamed personality" and also "A more self-centered, energetic, sincere artist I never saw. I can understand right well how singular must be his attitude toward the world".[br /]
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[b]Third Phase, 1817-1824[/b][br /]
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The tentative revolt against the classical norms became overt in the final phase of Beethoven’s work. He heralded the Romantic Movement in music by giving a freer expression to his emotional unrest uninhibited by conventional artistic norms. His three Hammerklavier Sonatas mark the transition from the second phase to the third. So strong was his ardor for independence that he even gave up the convention of using Italian musical terminology. He coined the German name hammerklavier for pianoforte, and hence this name for these sonatas.[br /]
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The second of the hammerklavier sonatas, Opus 106 in B Flat Major Grosse Sonata fur das Hammerklavier of 1818-1819, is the greatest of all his pieces for the piano. It expresses his rejection of despair and his fortitude in accepting old age and deafness gracefully.[br /]
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The next major work to be produced by Beethoven was a Mass Missa Solemnis. It was commissioned to be performed on the accession of Archduke Rudolph as the archbishop of Olmütz but Beethoven could not complete it on time. Missa Solemnis expressed his unwavering faith in a spiritual God. Beethoven sold the pre-publication copies of the Mass to ten rulers for 50 ducats each.[br /]
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Beethoven completed his Ninth Symphony, the Choral Symphony, expressing his final and mature philosophy in February 1824. He was desperate to present both his masterpieces but no Viennese was willing to produce these difficult pieces. Just as he was on the verge of accepting an offer by a Berlin producer to present them, music lovers of Vienna pooled their resources to underwrite the production of Missa Solemnis and the Choral Symphony at the Karntnerthor theatre. The concert on May 27, 1824 was a grand success. Beethoven could not hear the applause that followed. He became aware of it only after he turned around to face the audience.[br /]
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Beethoven was commissioned by Prince Nikolai Galitzin to compose three quartets dedicated to him for a sum of 50 ducats each. He came up with five quartets - Opuses 127, 130, 132 for Galitzin, and Opuses 131, 132. Beethoven had rewritten the fourth movement of Opus 130 because the performers found it too difficult. This rejected movement was later offered as Opus 133, the Grosse Fugue. Opus 131 in C Sharp is considered to be the greatest of all Beethoven quartets.[br /]
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[b]Relationship with Nephew[/b][br /]
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Beethoven’s brother Caspar Anton Carl died in 1815 and he appointed his wife Johanna and Beethoven as joint guardians of his eight-year old son Karl. Beethoven dragged Johanna to court for sole custody of the child on the grounds that she was immoral. Karl could not stand[br /]


this long drawn battle between his mother and uncle. The proceedings lasted till 1820 with Beethoven becoming the sole guardian. In spite of the affection bestowed upon the nephew by Beethoven, there were bitter fights between the two. Beethoven’s overbearing attitude ultimately led to Karl attempting suicide in 1826. The event completely shook Beethoven. He finally agreed to Karl pursuing a career in the army.[br /]
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[b]The Last Days[/b][br /]
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Beethoven was down with pneumonia on December 2, 1826. He started abusing the frozen punch that was prescribed by the doctors for sleep. He developed jaundice and dropsy. On January 2, 1827, Karl left Vienna to join the army. Beethoven’s condition deteriorated further. Hell-bent on not using the 10,000 florins he had stashed away for his nephew, he wrote to the London Philharmonic Society on March 6, 1827, imploring them to arrange a benefit concert for him. The Society agreed to it and sent him an advance of 100 pounds.[br /]
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By March 16, the physicians felt that Beethoven wouldn’t live long. He signed a will on March23, bequeathing everything to his nephew Karl. His brother summoned a priest for the last sacrament and Beethoven reportedly thanked him for this last service. He uttered the words ‘Comedia finita est’ – the phrase announcing the end of a play in classic Roman theatre. When a shipment of wine arrived on March 24, Beethoven said, "Pity, pity, too late". These were his last words. He was given some wine, and later he fell into a coma.[br /]
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Beethoven died on March 26, 1827 at 5:30 in the evening. Just before his death, a flash of lightning and a clap of thunder aroused Beethoven. He raised his hand and shook his clenched fist. Post-mortem investigations revealed that he had liver cirrhosis, clogged arteries and degenerated auditory nerves.[br /]
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He was buried in the Währing cemetery. About 10,000 to 20,000 people gathered at the Schwarzpanierhaus to attend his funeral on 29th March. The torchbearers included Schubert and Grillparzer, and the pallbearers included Hummel, the pianist and Kreutzer, the violinist. Austria’s greatest living author Grillparzer wrote the funeral oration.[br /]
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Ludwig van Beethoven, the German musical genius, redefined the scope of western classical music by transforming it into a powerful medium of expression of philosophical thoughts as well as feelings. The mark of his genius lay in the way he refined his improvisations and established them as techniques, charted new territory and opened up hitherto unknown avenues for others to explore. He was the fountainhead of the Romantic Movement in music. And he achieved all this without repudiating the classical heritage. He took music, especially instrumental music; to such heights as to make a critic say "All arts aspire to the condition of music". What adds poignancy to his accomplishments is the fact that he was all the while waging a heroic struggle against advancing deafness; he composed some of his masterpieces in the last decade of his life after he became completely deaf.[br /]
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[b]1770[/b]

Born on December 16, in Bonn.[br /]
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[b]1778[/b]

Performed at a public concert on March 26.[br /]
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[b]1781[/b]

Became an apprentice of Christian Gottlob Neefe.[br /]
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[b]1782[/b]

Appointed Neefe’s assistant as court organist.[br /]
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[b]1783[/b]

Published his first composition Variations on a March by Dressler.[br /]
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[b]1784[/b]

Appointed to play the viola and made the deputy court organist.[br /]
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[b]1787[/b]

Met Mozart in Vienna.[br /]

Mother died of tuberculosis.[br /]
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[b]1789 [/b]Started getting half of the father’s pension.[br /]
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[b]1790[/b]

Met Haydn in Bonn.[br /]
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[b]1792 [/b]Left Bonn for Vienna.[br /]

Father died.[br /]

Started taking music lessons from Haydn.[br /]
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[b]1795 [/b]Benefit concert for the widows of the Society of Tone Artists.[br /]

Piano concerto for Konstantine Mozart.[br /]

Played own concerto at a concert by Haydn in Bonn.[br /]

Published Three Trios for Piano, Violin and Cello.[br /]
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[b]1797 [/b]Composed music for a war song.[br /]
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[b]1800[/b]

Presented Septet and First Symphony.[br /]
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[b]1801 [/b]Moonlight Sonata presented.[br /]

Revealed his loss of hearing to two friends.[br /]
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[b]1802 [/b]Wrote the Heiligenstadt Statement on his deafness.[br /]

Composed the Second Symphony.[br /]
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[b]1803 [/b]Composed Eroica.[br /]
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[b]1805[/b]

Eroica and Leonore performed.[br /]
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[b]1806[/b]

Second performance of Leonore.[br /]
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[b]1808 [/b]Premiere of Fifth and Sixth Symphonies.[br /]
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[b]1812 [/b]Met Goethe.[br /]
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[b]1813 [/b]Battle Symphony presented.[br /]
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[b]1814 [/b]Last public performance at the piano, Opus 97.[br /]
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[b]1815 [/b]Brother Carl died.[br /]
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[b]1824 [/b]Missa Solemnis and Choral Symphony performed.[br /]
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[b]1826 [/b]Nephew attempted suicide.[br /]

Contracted pneumonia.[br /]
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[b]1827 [/b]
Died on March 26.[br /]
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[b]MAJOR WORKS[br /]
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ORCHESTRAL MUSIC[/b][br /]
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[b]Symphonies[/b][br /]
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Opus 21, 1800 First Symphony in C Major[br /]

Opus 36, 1802 Second Symphony in D Major[br /]

Opus 55, 1804 Eroica, Ninth Symphony in E Flat Major[br /]

Opus 60, 1806 Fourth Symphony in B Flat Major[br /]

Opus 67, 1808 Fifth Symphony in C Minor[br /]

Opus 68, 1808 Pastoral Symphony, Sixth Symphony No.6 in F Major[br /]


Opus 92, 1812 Seventh Symphony in A Major[br /]

Opus 93, 1812 Eighth Symphony in F Major[br /]

Opus 91, 1813 Battle Symphony (Wellington’s Victory or The Battle of Vitoria)[br /]

Opus 125, 1824 Choral Symphony, Ninth Symphony in D Minor[br /]
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[i][b]Concertos[/b][/i][br /]
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Opus 15, 1798 Piano Concerto No.1 in C Major[br /]

Opus 19, 1798 Piano Concerto No.2 in B Flat Major[br /]

Opus 37, 1800 Piano Concerto No.3 in C Minor[br /]

Opus 56, 1804 Triple Concerto in C Major for violin, cello and piano[br /]

Opus 58, 1806 Piano Concerto No.4 in G Major[br /]

Opus 61, 1806 Violin Concerto in D Major[br /]

Opus 73, 1809 Emperor, Piano Concerto No.5 in E Flat Major[br /]
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[i][b]Romances[/b][/i][br /]
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Opus 50, 1798 Romance for Violin and Orchestra in F Major[br /]

Opus 40, 1802 Romance for Violin and Orchestra in G Major[br /]
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[i][b]Overtures[/b][/i][br /]
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Opus 62, 1807 Coriolan, Overture in C Minor[br /]

Opus 138, 1807 Leonore 1, Overture in C Major[br /]
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[i][b]CHAMBER MUSIC[/b][/i][br /]
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Opus103, 1792 Wind Octet in E Flat Major[br /]

Opus 81 b, 1795 Sextet for Horns and String Quartet in E Flat[br /]

Opus 16, 1796 Quintet for Piano and Winds[br /]

Opus 18, 1798-1800 Six String Quartets in F Major, G Major, D Major, C Minor, A Major, B Flat Major[br /]

Opus 29, 1801 String Quintet in C Major[br /]

Opus 47, 1802 Kreutzer, Violin Sonata in A Major[br /]

Opus 59, 1806 Three Razumovsky String Quartets in F Major, E Minor, C Major[br /]
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[i][b]PIANO MUSIC[/b][/i][br /]
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Opus 27, 1801 Sonata quasi una fantasia, Piano Sonata No.13 in E Flat Major[br /]

Opus 27, 1801 Moonlight Sonata, Piano Sonata No.14 in C Sharp Major[br /]

Opus 57, 1804 Apassionata, Piano Sonata No.23 in F Minor[br /]

Opus 106, 1818 Hammerklavier, Piano Sonata No.29 in B Flat Major[br /]

Three sets of twenty-six Bagatelles[br /]

Four Rondos[br /]

Twenty sets of Variations[br /]
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[i][b]VOCAL MUSIC[/b][/i][br /]
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Opus 86, 1807 Mass in C Major[br /]

Opus 80, 1808 Choral Fantasia, For piano, chorus and orchestra[br /]

Opus 83, 1810 Three Goethe Songs Wonne der Wehmut, Sehnsucht, Mit einem gemalten Band[br /]

Opus 98, 1816 Song Cycle An die ferne Geliebte[br /]

Opus 123, 1823 Missa Solemnis, Mass in D Major[br /]
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[i][b]THEATRE MUSIC[/b][/i][br /]
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Opus 72, 1805, 1806, 1814 versions Opera Fidelio (Leonore)[br /]

Opus 43, 1801 Ballet Die Gaschöpfe des Prometheus[br /]

Opus 84, 1810 Play Egmont, Incidental music[br /]

Opus 113, 1811 Play Die Ruinen von Athen, Incidental music[br /]

Opus 117, 1811 Play König Stephan, Incidental music[br /]

Opus 124, 1822 Play Die Weihe des Hauses, Overture in C Major[br /]
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• Must it be ? It must be.[br /]

[i](Opus 135, epigraph)[/i][br /]
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• When I composed that, I was conscious of being inspired by God Almighty. Do you think I can consider your puny little fiddle when He speaks to me ?[br /]

[i](When a violinist complained that a passage was unplayable)[/i][br /]
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• Off with you ! You’re a happy fellow, for you’ll give happiness and joy to many other people. There is nothing better or greater than that ![br /]

[i](When Franz Liszt, aged 11, played for him)[/i][br /]
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• Do not let that trouble Your Excellency; perhaps the greetings are intended for me.
(When Goethe complained about greetings from passers-by)[br /]
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• Courage ! Despite all bodily weaknesses my spirit shall rule.[br /]
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• God above all, God has never deserted me.[br /]
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• Your Beethoven is living very unhappily in battle with nature and its creator….. My noblest part, my hearing, has deteriorated very much[br /]
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• Music – the one incorporeal entrance into the higher world of knowledge which comprehends mankind but which mankind cannot comprehend.[br /]
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• Tones that sound, and roar and storm about me until I have set them down in notes[br /]
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• Beethoven can write music, thank God, but he can do nothing else on earth[br /]
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• Recommend virtue to your children, that alone, not wealth, can give happiness. It upholds in adversity and the thought of it and my art prevents me from putting an end to my life.[br /]
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• No one should drive a hard bargain with an artist.[br /]
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• Music is a higher revelation than philosophy.[br /]
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• Music is the mediator between the spiritual and the sensual life.[br /]
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• I want to seize fate by the throat.[br /]
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• We mortals with immortal minds are only born for sufferings and joys, and one could almost say that the most excellent receive joy through sufferings.[br /]
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• Sacrifice again all the pettiness of social life to your art. O God above all things! For it is an eternal providence which directs omnisciently the good and evil fortunes of human men.[br /]
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• Tranquilly will I submit myself to all vicissitudes and place my sole confidence in Thy unalterable goodness. O God! My soul shall rejoice in thy immutable servant. Be my rock, my light, forever my trust![br /]
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• O blissful moment, how fortunate I consider myself that I can summon you, create you myself.[br /]
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• Applaud friends, the comedy is over.[br /]
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Comments - LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN