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Detail of Biography - Margaret Sanger
Name :
Margaret Sanger
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Birth Date :
01/01/1970
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Biography - Margaret Sanger
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Margaret Sanger, was born on September 14, 1879, in Corning, New York. Born to Irish parents, she was the sixth of 11 children. Her father, Michael Hennessey Higgins, was an artist with iconoclastic ideas, a rebel and a philosopher. He made his living by sculpting in marble and granite and never contemplated acquiring wealth. Margaret imbibed radical ideals and learnt to rebel from her non-conformist father. Courage and patience came from her mother, Anne Purcell Higgins. Despite suffering from congestion of lungs, her mother brought up 11 children and made a deep impact on Margaret’s thinking and sensitivity. Her mother’s frequent pregnancies made her think about the plight of women of those times and sowed the seeds of the idea of birth control at a very young age.[br /]
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Her family proffered an amicable atmosphere, which gave enough freedom to all the children to express their ideas and views freely. Her father’s belief in the equality of sexes created a unique camaraderie not only between her parents but also among the children. He was anon conformist through and through. All other men kept beard or moustaches, but not he. He was a very homily person, nearly six feet tall. He had an innate sense of humor and as achild, Margaret could make out from the manner other elders would laugh out at his deliveries. He had friends among whom were artisans, cabinet makers, masons carpenters etc. They shared his ideas and his passion for hunting.[br /]
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Her mother Anne was a slender and straight looking woman. She was afflicted by nagging cough. The way in which her mother displayed her sensitivities to flowers would find expression in their appropriate and intricate arrangement. Theeeey never had the money to buy them nor did her mother have time to grow them. They were simply fetched from the nearby woods and fields. Margaret would disticntly remember seeing all kinds of seasonal flowers at their sitting table. She came from the Irish stock, a strian that could be traced from the Norman conquerers. [br /]
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Margaret's father's adventure had been the capture of a confederate captain on a fine mul, for which the later was been counted as an invaluable acquisition. The family was brought up in the tradition that he had been one of the three men selected for bravery by Sherman. This fact made Margaret and others inthe family very proud. He was thought to b e unbeatable but accirding to her, her father was appalled by the brutalitites of war; never interested in fighting. unless perhaps his Irish sportsmanship cropped out when two well pitted dogs were set against each other. According to her, her father was a rebel, philosopher, an artist all rolled in one after having studied anatomy, medicine and phrenology, that he used in perfecting his skills at modelling.[br /]
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She grew up playing the same sports and games her brothers played. As her father was a great hunter, she learnt to handle a gun easily, instilling in her the spirit of adventure. All her brothers and sisters were quite healthy, active and outstanding scholars, creating a healthy and competitive environment at home. The best quality she went on to imbibe was that of creative imagination. An example was when during christmas, they would decorate the tree with white popcorn, red cranberries and other natural things that the children strung themselves.[br /]
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Her childhood was not very easy one, as her family was not very wealthy. While the boys milked the cows and tended the chickens, the girls put younger children to sleep or mended the clothes or set the table cleaning vegetables and dishes. But this siutuation was very well accepted by all the children without any grieviences or deprivations, proudly sharing the domestic resposibilities. Once, at the age of eight, she desperately wanted ten cents to watch a play. She reached the opera house along with a friend. Her friend had money but she had only faith. In the crowd outside the hall she felt the purse of a woman touching her arm. Her desire to get in, made her think of stealing a few cents. As she was about to put out her hand toward the purse, doors of the hall opened and she was shoved in the hall. She was able to watch the play but didn’t enjoy it. That night she could not sleep as she realized that she was made up of two Margarets – thinking and feeling that she had to strike a balance between the two. This incident led to a spiritual awakening, following which she began to connect her desires with reasoning about consequences. She began to put herself through ordeals of various sorts in order to gain control over her desires and emotions.[br /]
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Later, she proved her determination by challenging herself to the hardest task of crossing a river through a railroad bridge, which was forbidden for children of her age. Whenever, she crossed this bridge over Chemung river with her father or brother, they used to lift her up as the height of the bridge and the river racing underneath was very fearsome. She decided to overcome her fear by crossing it all alone. About halfway down the bridge, a train started approaching the bridge. She stumbled and fell. Curled around the ties, she dangled in space, until a friend of her father who had been fishing in the river below, rescued her. She returned to cross the bridge again. She was determined to conquer her fear and she did cross it that day.[br /]
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She was a rebellious child. While in her eighth grade, she left school because of a teacher’s mean comments on her reaching late one day. She announced to her family that she would never go back to school. She joined a new school only after her parents and older sisters made her realize that she was not rebelling against education but against the particular teacher.[br /]
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There is another incident where while slleping with her sister Ethel, she used to say the prayer; 'God give us to this day our daily bread." Upon this she once went up to her father to kiss him good night. He quizzically asked her,[br /]
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"What was that you weere saying about the bread?"[br /]
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"Why, that was in the Lord's prayer, 'Give us this our daily bread.'"[br /]
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"Who were you talking to?"[br /]
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"To God."[br /]
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"Is God the baker?"[br /]
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Margaret was shocked and as if to counter she said,"No, of course not. It means the rain, the sunshine, and all the things to make the wheat, which makes the bread."[br /]
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"Well, well," he replied, "so that's the idea. Then why don't you say so? Always say what you mean, my daughter; it is much better."[br /]
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It was then, that she began to question her self rather than taking things for granted. According to her, "it was not pleasant, but father had taught me to think. He gave none of us much peace." When she and her sisters put on stout shoes her father would ask, "Who made them?"[br /]
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"Why, yes, the shoemaker."[br /]
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He would then lead them into graphic description of the shoe making process with details as to how the workers at the factory were exploited in order that "we walk with our feet warm and dry." Such were the few incidents recalled by her in her memoires that graph her mental as well as her physical upbringing.[br /]
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Margaret attended Claverack College and Hudson River Institute, one of the oldest co-education institutions in the country. Like every girl, during those days, she was attracted to theater and acting as a career. She and her sibbling used to put plays every Saturdays to the appreciating audience being her family members and a few friends. In order to pursue acting career, she applied to the dramatic school in New York. She was shocked to receive a detailed form asking for her personal information and vital statistics. She had expected of having to provide an account for her ability and morals for the admission at the dramatic school and did not approve of sending any personal information to strange men. She finally quashed her wish to pursue a theatrical career.[br /]
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While at Claverack, she took to debating on several issues and expressed her radical thoughts at a Methodist church where anyone could get up and express ones conviction. During her study periods, she scribbled her thoughts and debated in the evenings at the church. She presented her essay, ‘Women’s Rights’ and stunned young boys and girls, who discussed the Bible, religion and politics. Supported by her father on such bold subjects and aided by her own enthusiasm, she turned to even more revolutionary subjects.[br /]
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Margaret was fond of playing pranks and practical jokes during her college days at Claverack. Once caught in the act, the principal called her to his cabin and made her realize her leadership qualities and ability to influence others and guided her to use her abilities for constructive activities.[br /]
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After completing her studies, Margaret had a stint as a teacher at a public school in New Jersey. She realized that the teacher’s job did not suit her temperament. She was looking for more challenging work that could give her an opportunity to make significant contribution to the society. She gave up her teacher’s job. She read a lot of medical books around that time to be able to take good care of her ill mother, which resulted in a deep interest for the medical profession. She decided to enroll for her Masters in Medicine. The death of her mother compounded her desire to pursue medical profession and to be of service to the world. Another reason for her to pursue the medical profession was the inherent feeling that she could have saved her mother from death had she been trained in the proffession that she was now going to take up. [br /]
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She decided to start with nursing and in 1900, entered the nursing program at White Plains Hospital as a probationer. Here, she underwent rigorous training and faced many unpleasant aspects of nursing such as horrid patient conditions, awful physical abnormality, gruesome operations and even death. Margaret was tough enough to get accustomed to all such eventualities soon. Her worst tribulation came during her initial period at White Plains Hospital. One night, an Italian patient was brought to the hospital in completely exhausted condition and was ill of suspected typhoid. In the early morning hours, when she was about to doze off on a couch just opposite the ward in which the Italian patient was kept, she saw him cautiously approaching her with something hidden behind his back. She was feeling quite drowsy and did not bother to move. When she suddenly arose, the man was about to thrust a knife into her.[br /]
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She grabbed his arm and held to it. As the man was very ill, he lost his little energy and she could wrest the knife away from him. When the police came, she learnt that the Italian belonged to a gang, which had committed five murders. Margaret faced many such strange events during her stint as nurse that made her even more tough and confident from within.[br /]
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Often, Margaret was called on a maternity case to sterilize and boil forceps over the kitchen stove fired by wood, while the doctor was on his way. Many a times labor terminated before the doctor could arrive and she had to perform the delivery. Seeing a baby born was what she considered one of the greatest experiences a human could have. She saw both births and deaths during her years at the hospital, but birth to her had always been awe-inspiring than death.[br /]
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While training at the Manhattan Eye & Ear Hospital, a fellow doctor introduced her to William Sanger, an architect by profession, but an artist at heart. Margaret was intensely proud of his works and sympathized with his dreams of abandoning architecture and devoting himself to painting. Soon they became friends and their friendship blossomed into love and culminated in marriage, in the year 1902.[br /]
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After the first year of her marriage, Margaret fell sick due to motherhood and overwork at the hospital. Her husband remained busy. Prolonged sickness depressed her and her state took turn for the worse. Finally, they moved to Hastings and settled there. A suburb close to nature, was necessary for her recovery. Margaret gave birth to two more children. She enjoyed playing with all three of them – Stuart, Peggy and Grant. Although, it was a quite, peaceful life in this suburb, both Margaret and her husband could do little about their dream careers.[br /]
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Two years later, from a laid-back suburban life, she returned to New York along with her family and rejoined nursing. Her husband tried his hand at painting. This time around, both Margaret and her husband joined a circle of intellectuals, activists and artists. Margaret got immersed in the pre-war, bohemian culture flourishing in Greenwich. This infused life back in her as she met several renowned radicalists including John Reed, Max Eastman, Upton Sinclair, Mable Dodge and Emma Goldman. The circle of activist friends reignited in her, a desire to achieve something significant, to find an opportunity and a cause to work for.[br /]
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Margaret became a member of the Liberal Club and an anarchist-run Ferrer Centre and Modern School. She also joined the committee of New York Socialist Party for fulfillment. She took part in labor actions led by industrial workers and played an active role in workers’ strikes at Lawrence, Massachusetts in 1912 and also at Paterson, New Jersey in 1913. This was quite satisfying for her but she needed to concentrate on something, which was closer to her heart.[br /]
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Her work as visiting nurse focused her interest on women’s health and she realized that she could really contribute significantly. She met John Block and his wife Anita, who were ardent workers for the cause. Anita, editor of the woman’s page of the publication, ‘New York Call’, encouraged Margaret to write on women’s health issues for the same.[br /]
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She started writing a column on sex education titled ‘What Every Girl Should Know ?’ The column generated massive response from women, as they were ignorant about issues like pregnancy and safe sex was not easily available. Critics however, declared her articles obscene. The column she wrote was censored shortly under the Comstock Law that banned dissemination of contraceptive information. Margaret loved adventure and this provoked her to start challenging the antiquated Comstock Law of 1873. Angry with such censors and shocked by the inability of most women to obtain accurate and effective birth control methods, Margaret decided to fight.[br /]
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Around this time in New York, trained nurses were in great demand. Hence, she received more and more calls especially from lower-middle, lower and poor classes. She realized that pregnancy was a chronic condition among women from these classes. Women always sought her advice on how to avoid another baby, as they could not afford another one. Margaret discovered that there was no self-protection or fool-proof method that a woman could herself adopt. During her practice as a nurse, she witnessed hundreds of cases of abortion deaths and deaths of children because of improper neo-natal care. Margaret studied all such cases in great depth. The details of such cases and study of the reasons behind them led her to a horrifying conclusion – destruction linked with excessive child bearing. Poverty, uncontrolled fertility, high maternal and infant mortality rates and abortions had a deep impact on her sensitive mind. She had finally found the cause to fight for. She resolved to fight against unwanted pregnancy.[br /]
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In March 1914, she launched a radical, feminist monthly, ‘The Woman Rebel’, dedicated to the interests of women. The magazine had an objective of developing all personalities of a woman. Margaret believed that there were feminists trying to free women from the new economic ideology but were doing nothing to free her from her biological subservience to man, which became the true motto of ‘The Woman Rebel’.[br /]
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She was very clear that her movement through the monthly would revolve around the unwanted pregnancy and felt the need for a right word for the cause. She found that the terms already in use like Neo-Malthusianism, Family Limitation, Conscious Generation, et al that lacked popular appeal. She finally coined a new word for her cause - Birth Control.[br /]
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Through the magazine, she advocated the right to practice birth control. It produced extraordinary results for Margaret, fetching new contracts, books inquiries, messages and some money. Within six months of its launch, she had received over 10,000 letters, most of them asking for accurate and reliable information to prevent conception. In the September issue of the monthly, she appealed to the subscribers to combine forces and protest against government invasion of their right to privacy and information. Three consecutive issues of the feminist monthly were banned and Margaret was indicted for violating postal obscenity laws. She argued that the articles did not give any contraceptive information but it was merely announced that she intended to do so through them.[br /]
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On one October day, she received a call from the District Attorney’s office asking her to present herself in court without prior notice. She realized, when she presented herself in the court, that almost everything was decided and she was to be convicted the next afternoon. Her plea to seek more time for explanation to defend herself was rejected. Lawyers advised her to plead guilty but Margaret refused. She wanted to prove that the law was wrong but she was not in a position to prepare her facts in just 18 hours. She did not want to get convicted on wrong charges. So, she decided to sail to England, where she could prepare her case adequately and return to defend the same in the court.[br /]
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She wrote to the judge informing that she was leaving the United States in order to prepare herself to fight the case, which dealt with the society and not individual and would present herself to the court upon her return. By midnight, she was on her way to England. On the way, she asked a friend to release copies of a 16-page pamphlet, ‘Family Limitation’, in which she had provided explicit instructions on the use of a variety of contraceptive methods.[br /]
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In England, she derived deeper understanding of birth control and broadened the objectives of her movement. She strengthened her arguments that birth control would enable women’s psychological needs to be satisfied by enabling them to fully enjoy sexual relations without the fear of pregnancy. At British libraries, her statistical investigations revealed that Netherlands was a country where there was a force operating towards constructive race building. Margaret reached Netherlands to dig out how it managed to control the birth rate. There she discovered that personal instruction had been the best method and clinics were the proper places to advocate birth control. She learnt that it involved much more than talks, books or pamphlets for carrying out effective birth control campaign and the right way to public health was through personal instruction clinics. A visit to a Dutch birth control clinic convinced her that a new, more flexible diaphragm, carefully fitted by medically trained staff, was the most effective contraceptive.[br /]
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In 1914, Margaret had already separated from her husband, deciding that she would work for the cause independently of him. William, however, later got into a trap and was convicted for circulating copy of Family Limitation, which he had given to a poor man with a large family on request. Mr. Comstock famous for his Comstock Law forced him to go to jail for a few hours before he was bailed out.[br /]
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Margaret’s daughter Peggy, was not keeping well for long and hence she decided to return to the United States. In September 1915, she returned to the United States. She was sent to jail immediately for distributing the ‘Family Limitation’ pamphlets. During her 30 days stay in prison, she surprisingly discovered that 10 of the girl prisoners were illiterate and she devoted much of her time helping them to read and write letters.[br /]
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A few months later, Margaret decided to face charges against her for publication of the monthly, ‘The Woman Rebel’. This time people, especially women, were much aware, so the trial gave her a lot of media attention and public support for her and her cause. In the mean time, her daughter Peggy died. Peggy’s untimely death generated a sympathy wave in her favor that recieved tremendous publicity. This in turn, forced the government to drop her prosecution.[br /]
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Next on her agenda was a nationwide tour to promote birth control. Her movement had now gathered momentum. She delivered speeches wherever possible, regardless of attendance. Audiences grew as she went on convincing people about birth control. People started listening to her ideas because the issue of birth control touched their lives deeply and vitally. She was arrested in several states where she attracted more publicity.[br /]
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Margaret was very clear that she wanted the world to be a safe haven for babies. She pointed out factors that contributed to the premature death of babies. She claimed that first right of a child was to be wanted, to be desired and to be planned and not the sympathy and charity extended towards it. Her lectures highlighted seven specific circumstances under which birth control could be practised. The laborers and social workers crowded in large halls to listen to her and responded enthusiastically.[br /]
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World War I halted the progress of her movement temporarily. After the war was over, Margaret decided to expand the birth control movement by promoting it on the basis of medical and public health needs. ‘The Birth Control Review’ was her new monthly launched in 1917, which introduced a quieter and scientific tone. The words, ‘birth control’ amused people and created interest in wider audiences. Many people bought it with utmost seriousness in the fond hope that it would solve their problems. ‘The Birth Control Review’ faced severe financial strain and few issues could not be published in the latter half of 1917. In May 1918, the New York Women’s Publishing Company was incorporated with the purpose of having a solid and substantial basis on which the ‘Review’ could be operated.[br /]
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In 1920, Margaret revisited Europe and lectured widely on birth control. Her habit of putting down experiences and after-lecture-thoughts, gave birth to books like ‘Woman and the New Race’, which she called her ‘Heart Book’ and ‘The Pivot of Civilization’, which she considered her ‘Head Book’.[br /]
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In 1921, Margaret Sanger promoted ‘American Birth Control League’ to campaign for the cause. With that, she embarked on a campaign of education and publicity designed to win mainstream support for birth control. She focused her efforts on gaining support from the medical fraternity, social workers and liberal wings of the eugenics movement. She increasingly rationalized birth control as a means to curb genetically transmitted mental or physical defects. [br /]
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While Margaret primarily did not advocate efforts to limit population solely on the basis of class, ethnicity or race, her association with the reactionary wing of eugenics movement permanently tainted her reputation. Anti-choice activists labeled her a racist and an eugenicist. They distorted her messages and generated controversies around her.[br /]
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She married again in 1922, an oil magnet James Noah H Slee, who supported her cause by funding it till he died in 1943. She married James on her own terms, ensuring her occupational and sexual independence.[br /]
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After the New York court ruled exempting physicians from prohibition of dissemination of information on contraceptives, she started the first legal clinic run by a doctor, ‘Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau’ taking advantage of the loophole within the system. Established in 1923, this clinic was staffed by female doctors and social workers and served as a model establishment of other clinics. Later, this bureau became a center for the collection of critical data on the effectiveness of contraceptives.[br /]
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Margaret resigned as president of American Birth Control League in 1928 due to disputes with younger professionals on mainstream agenda. In 1929, she formed the National Committee to lobby for a legislation that granted physicians the right to legally express contraceptive information. Most doctors however remained hostile and non-cooperative. So much so, that then, Margaret faced opposition even from the Catholic Church. Her efforts and legislative campaigns to secure government support for the birth control cause finally failed. She succeeded, at last in 1936, when a US Court exempted physicians from Comstock Law and its ban on contraceptive materials’ import. This decision, in effect, gave doctors the right to prescribe or distribute contraceptives. Though, the ban on importing contraceptive devices for personal use was lifted only as late as 1971.[br /]
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Both her foundations, ‘American Birth Control League’ and ‘Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau’ merged in 1939 to form a new institution called ‘Birth Control Federation of America’. This institution was later renamed as ‘Planned Parenthood Federation of America’. In 1959, she stopped taking active part in the movement and retired to Tucson, Arizona. For almost five decades, she had been actively involved with the movement, fighting numerous battles, contributing immensely to the movement, which had progressed to new limits under her guidance and leadership.[br /]
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World War II however, shifted her focus on birth control in the international fora. Her campaign was taken to African and Oriental countries. She contributed to the cause significantly in Germany, Italy, China, India and Japan. She asserted that vastly populated countries like India and China had three choices: to lower the standard of living to the bare subsistence level, to control birth rate, or to reach out for colonies. In India, her efforts to enlist the help of Gandhi, did not bear fruit. She, however, got good support from Rabindranath Tagore, the great poet of India. In 1952, she helped found the ‘International Planned Parenthood Federation’ for a systematic worldwide movement and served as its president till 1959.[br /]
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All through the years on her work for birth control, Margaret was focused on the search for simpler, effective and affordable contraceptives. Not only did she help arrange for the American manufacture of the Dutch based spring form diaphragms that she had been smuggling in from Europe, but also fostered a host of indigenous research efforts to develop spermicidal jellies, foam powders and hormonal contraceptives. She also played a critical role in the development of the first anovulated contraceptive – the birth control pill.[br /]
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Apart from ‘The Pivot of Civilization’ and ‘Women and the New Race’, her other books include such best sellers as ‘What Every Mother Should Know’, ‘My Fight for Birth Control’ and ‘Margaret Sanger: An Autobiography’.[br /]
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A woman of valor, Margaret, never lost her focus on women’s liberation and social justice. Her basic goal remained the woman’s right to control her own body in the process of procreation. She died in 1966, at the age of 87 in Tucson, Arizona in the United States.[br /]
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Margaret Sanger will always be remembered as founder of the radical movement for Birth Control and Planned Parenthood.[br /]
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[i]A eugenicist or a founder of planned parenthood ? A racist or a radical activist for women’s freedom ?[/i][br /]
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Margaret Sanger, who remained a controversial figure for years, championed the cause of birth-control in the United States and had gained immense international stature. Her crusade to legalize birth control developed into the most influential movement for female emancipation. [br /]
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Her observations on uncontrolled fertility, high rates of infant and maternal mortality and abortion deaths affirmed her belief in every woman’s right to avoid unwanted pregnancy. She took on the conformists, the courts and the churches. Through her publications, she consistently searched for simpler, effective and affordable contraceptives and alternative birth control methods. With establishment of foundations like the ‘American Birth Control League’, she spearheaded the movement for birth control in the US, which spread wings internationally under her leadership. All through her 50-year career, she remained devoted to the goal of women’s freedom and its larger implications for social justice.[br /]
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Margaret Sanger can be called a pioneer of the most humane, radical, transforming and social movement of the 20th century.[br /]
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[b]September 14, 1879[/b][br /]

Born at Corning, New York, U.S.A.[br /]
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[b]1896-1900[/b][br /]

Attended Claverack College and Hudson River Institute.[br /]
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[b]1900[/b][br /]

Entered the nursing program at White Plains Hospital.[br /]
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[b]1902[/b][br /]

Married William Sanger, an architect later turned artist.[br /]
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[b]1912[/b][br /]

Began working as a nurse on the Lower East side of New York City.[br /]
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[b]1912[/b][br /]

Began writing a column on sex education for New York Call titled ‘What Every Girl Should Know ?’[br /]
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[b]March, 1914[/b][br /]

Published the first issue of her radical monthly ‘The Woman Rebel’.[br /]
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[b]August, 1914[/b][br /]

Indicted for violating postal obscenity laws.[br /]
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[b]September, 1915[/b][br /]

Jailed for the first time for distributing copies of ‘Family Limitation’.[br /]
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[b]October, 1916[/b][br /]

Opened first birth control clinic in Brooklyn, arrested after nine days and spent 30 days in prison.[br /]
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[b]1917[/b][br /]

Returned to United States and started publishing a new monthly ‘The Birth Control Review' and 'Birth Control News'.[br /]
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[b]1921[/b][br /]

Formed the ‘American Birth Control League’.[br /]
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[b]1922[/b][br /]

Married oil magnate, James Noah H Slee.[br /]
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[b]1928[/b][br /]

Resigned as President of ‘American Birth Control League’.[br /]
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[b]1929[/b][br /]

Formed National Committee on Federal Legislation for Birth control.[br /]
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[b]1939[/b][br /]

‘American Birth Control League’ merged with ‘Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau’ and was renamed ‘Planned Parenthood Federation of America’.[br /]
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[b]1952[/b][br /]

Founded ‘International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF)’ and became its President.[br /]
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[b]1959[/b][br /]

Resigned as president of ‘International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF)’.[br /]
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[b]1965[/b][br /]

Birth control became legal for married couples.[br /]
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[b]September 6, 1966[/b][br /]

Died in Tucson, Arizona.[br /]
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• No woman can call herself free who does not own and has no control over her own body.[br /]
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• No woman can call herself free unless she can choose consciously whether she will or will not be a mother.[br /]
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• War, famine, poverty and oppression of the workers will continue while woman makes life cheap. They will cease only when she limits her reproductivity and understands that human life is no longer a thing to be wasted.[br /]
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• A free race cannot be born to slave mothers. A woman cannot choose but give a measure of that bondage to her sons and daughters.[br /]
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• Woman must have her freedom, the fundamental freedom of choosing whether or not she will be a mother and how many children she will have.[br /]
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• No despot ever flung forth his legions to die in foreign conquest, no privilege-ruled nation ever erupted across its borders, to lock in deathly embrace with another, because behind them loomed the driving power of population too large for its boundaries and its natural resources."[br /]
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• The woman’s mission is not to enhance the masculine spirit, but to express feminine; hers is not to preserve a man-made world, but to create a human world by the infusion of the feminine element into all of its activities.[br /]
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• The real hope of the world lies in putting as painstaking thought into the business of mating as we do into other big business.[br /]
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• When a motherhood becomes the fruit of a deep yearning not the result of ignorance or accident, its children will become the foundation of a new race.[br /]
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• A woman’s duty is to look the world in the face with a go-to-hell look in the eyes; to have an idea; to speak and act in defiance of convention.[br /]
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