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Detail of Biography - Napoleon Buonaparte
Name :
Napoleon Buonaparte
Date :
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573
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Birth Date :
15/08/1769
Birth Place :
Not Available
Death Date :
May 5, 1821
Biography - Napoleon Buonaparte
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Napoleon Bonaparte was a great warrior and a notable conqueror. One of the most illuminating figures of modern history, he led an eventful life.[br /]
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Napoleon was born on August 15, 1769 at Ajaccio in Corsica. He was the child of a love-match. His father Charles was a strong and handsome man, who was only 18 when he married a beautiful girl, Letizia, in March 1764. Napoleon was the fourth child of Charles and Letizia. The first two had died in infancy and the third one, a son, born on January 8, 1768 was named Joseph. Napoleon also had five younger siblings.[br /]
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Charles Buonaparte was a student at Pisa. He gave up his studies during the birth of his second son. Letizia was charming, patriotic and zealous. Napoleon inherited these striking qualities from his mother.[br /]
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[b]Childhood and Education[/b][br /]
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Napoleon's earliest training was under a nanny, Caterina, and his wet-nurse Camilla Carborne. As a child, Napoleon was precocious and inclined towards the games of war. Clever and active, he always dominated his siblings even in games.[br /]
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As part of military reforms initiated by Saint-Germain, Minister of War for Emperor Louis XVI, 12 schools had been set apart for education of poor nobles at royal expense. Charles was fortunate enough to secure admission for his second son in such a school. Even as a child, Napoleon always exuded confidence. At Brienne where he grew up later, he had contempt for his fellow students who mocked at him for his foreign identity and poverty. When jeered at, Napoleon would retaliate sharply even at a very young age.[br /]
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In sharp contrast to Joseph, Napoleon was an ardent fighter from the beginning. His tutors, however, noticed that Napoleon was also shy, moody at times. He fared well in most of the subjects except Mathematics. His stayed at Brienne for about five-and-a-half years and in this time created a very positive image before all teachers.[br /]
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The Noble's school at Brienne was meant for the royal class and the ambience was befitting. The school had the best teachers. In addition, there were doctors, nurses, cooks, grooms and a hairdresser. There were big grounds for drills and recreation. Every student had a separate room and received two uniforms a year. The uniform had red, blue and white colors with silver and golden braids. Napoleon was overwhelmed by the school atmosphere.[br /]
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In October 1784, he received a nomination for the Paris Cadets' school. Here, he worked diligently. Napoleon, as a young boy of 15, was temperamentally non-aggressive and moody. But he was ambitious. With a strong will to go places, Napoleon outdid his fellow students, who were said to be pretentious and docile.[br /]
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At home, the scenario was not very conducive. Joseph, his elder brother, was not courageous like Napoleon. He could not make a good soldier and chose priesthood as his profession. The younger siblings grew up in poverty, more so after the death of their father. But he was a dutiful son. After the death of Charles, Napoleon earned money to support his mother and younger siblings. [br /]
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While at the military school, he could not visit his family often. After the death of his father, Napoleon learnt that Charles had accepted a contract from the government for the management of a mulberry plantation, and his untimely death left the family in heavy debt. So, Napoleon came back on a six-month leave from his school and went over to Paris to settle the case.[br /]
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As a young boy, Napoleon disapproved of riots. While in Paris, he had seen that his countrymen were being subjected to a lot of hardships under the French rule. The young lad, now a sub-Lieutenant, wrote a letter to Paoli, the patriot dictator, venting his spleen and expressing a desire for freedom.[br /]
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In the absence of his father, Napoleon behaved in a responsible manner and supported his family. In 1791, he took his younger brother Louis with him to Valence for further education. Though he was shouldering domestic responsibilities, the fire of patriotism was not dormant in him.[br /]
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Meanwhile, the famous French Revolution took place with the declaration of war against the emperor in 1792. Napoleon then kept on writing about his ideas on freedom and motherland in Letters on Corsica. During the revolution, Corsica was an important military base and played a significant role : it was likely to win freedom but all efforts by the residents were in vain. Napoleon played his first major role in the war during this revolution. Napoleon is said to have prepared a secret military plan for attack on the enemies but it was leaked out. Buonaparte was imprisoned for about 10 days.[br /]
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Napoleon's progress was fast; he moved from the rank a sub-Lieutenant to Lieutenant and gradually became the Captain. Later he rose to the position of Brigadier General.[br /]
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In the conflict in the British fleet, there were two military superiors - Saliceti and Saint Andre. While the former had immense confidence in his troops, the latter thought the British army was more powerful. Napoleon favored Saliceti. Finally, Saliceti's plan of a naval offensive was adopted and Napoleon embarked on the first-ever naval expedition of his life on March 5, 1795.[br /]
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[b]Marriage Proposals[/b][br /]
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By 1794, Napoleon was seriously thinking of getting married. His brother Joseph had married the elder daughter of a rich silk merchant Desiree Clary. The girl was named Julie. Napoleon had developed love for the younger daughter but his efforts did not succeed.[br /]
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By now, he was almost permanently settled at Paris. He also thought of marrying Madame Permon, his old friend who had recently widowed and was living in France with her two children. But when she refused his proposal, he shifted his love, again unsuccessfully, to Madame de la Bouchaderie.[br /]
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The fourth offer for marriage was made to Josephine Beauharnais, a widow having two children. Josephine was six years older than Napoleon. At the age of 16, she had married 19-year-old Beauharnais. The man looked down upon his wife for some strange colonial manners and they were legally separated soon. Beauharnais was involved in the French revolution very actively. Due to his suspicious activities, he was arrested and executed in 1794. When Beauharnais was arrested, Napoleon and Josephine came closer. She did all she could for her husband's release but in vain. After the death of her husband, Josephine, an uneducated lady, found it beyond her means to look after the children. As her husband's estate had been forfeited, she had no option but to survive on the bounties of people in power. She was the mistress of Barras; she maintained friendship with one Tallien and his lovely but scandalous wife.[br /]
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Josephine was young and beautiful. She first met Napoleon by chance. After her husband's death, she lived with her children in Paris. One day, she sent her son Eugene to Napoleon's headquarters with his father's sword, asking for permission to retain it. Napoleon was impressed by the boy's manners and granted him the permission. Josephine called up to thank Napoleon. Napoleon was attracted to the young lady. Soon, the two became good friends and took liking for each other.[br /]
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Josephine was six years older than Napoleon but not too old to be stirred up by passion. The 31-year-old woman was too poor and helpless to let a strong support go. On the other hand, Napoleon, who was well settled by then, could offer the much-wanted refuge. At the same time, it cannot be said that the marriage was any sort of a compromise for the two were ardently in love. Finally, on March 9, 1796 the duo married at the registry office in a modest manner. While Napoleon tried to give Josephine all that she wanted - not only money but also encouragement to lead an active life. She gave him love and warmth from the bottom of her heart. After a very short period of relaxation, Napoleon returned to Paris for active military life. While on duty, he frequently wrote to his beloved wife.[br /]
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Napoleon was busy again in his duties as the Commander-in-Chief of the Italian army. He changed his name from Buonaparte to Bonaparte, the first evidence of which is seen in an official correspondence dated March 24, 1796. He was a brave warrior and a prudent planner. Battles are won not just by exhibiting courage but also by planning. That is why the battles of Montenotte, Millesimo, Dego and Mondovi were won. The dexterity, which went into the planning of all these battles, also showed the strong ability of Napoleon. Success came in bundles. On January 16,1797, the battle of Rivoli was also won. Fighting continued throughout the year and by November 13, 1797, on the eve of the battle of Arcola, he felt as if his troops were on the verge of losing. But he achieved victory again due to his cleverness and planning. In the battle with Austrians, it seemed as if there would be no peace unless Venice is given to them in exchange of the Rhine frontier. Napoleon worked out the terms of peace for Campo Formio and became determined to overthrow the English monarchy.[br /]
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While there were other things weighing on his mind, Egypt was not forgotten. Egypt was a wealthy place but rather uncivilized. Napoleon planned to invade and conquer Egypt and carry the wealth to Paris. In those days, forces of Nature played a major role in deciding the fate of nations at war for sea route was a major mode of transport for war troops. Napoleon left for Egypt on May 19, 1798. Here, in the battle with Marmalukes (Mamluks), he achieved unprecedented success.[br /]
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Another battle was at Marengo, which began on June 14, 1800. The French forces advanced over the river Scrivia, completely unaware of 31,000 Austrians, who were close. This was one of the most dangerous battles for Napoleon as both sides lost at least 7,000 soldiers. Finally Napoleon emerged victorious and 7,000 Austrians were taken prisoners. In 1802, after long-standing hostility, peace was established with England. In the same year, he was appointed the First Consul. Within two years or on May 18, 1804 to be precise, he became the Emperor of France.[br /]
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[b]Attempt on Life[/b][br /]
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On Christmas eve in 1800, the First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte, his wife and other members of his family and friends had planned to attend Haydn's 'Creation' at the Opera (known as the Theatre de la Republique et des Arts) in Rue de Loi, not far away from the Tuileries. The Parisian newspapers had announced that Napoleon was to attend that evening's performance. As Josephine, Napoleon's stepdaughter Hortense and his sister Caroline were preparing to leave the Tuileries for the theater, one Jean Rapp remarked to Josephine wearing a magnificent new shawl from Constantinople : "Permit me to make a remark. You are not wearing your shawl tonight with your usual grace". Josephine requested that Rapp, who had served with her husband in Egypt, arrange the shawl in the Egyptian fashion. Napoleon went ahead in his carriage accompanied by Jean Lannes, Charles François Lebrun and Jean-Baptiste Bessieres with an escort of cavalry. Josephine and her party, Hortense, the pregnant Caroline and Rapp, followed them.[br /]
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Napoleon's coachman, Germain, who had consumed too many glasses of wine on that cold December night, was driving very fast through the narrow streets. As the carriage neared the theater, there was a big explosion that shattered the windows of the coach. The second carriage carrying the women was tossed and one of the horses died. Tiles, timbers and debris rained down around them. Screaming, the ladies huddled in a corner of the coach, stunned by the force of the detonation. Flying glass had cut Hortense's wrist and her dress was splattered with blood, Josephine had fainted even as Caroline, then eight months pregnant, remained calm.[br /]
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A huge and crude bomb, filled with bits of iron into a barrel on a horse-drawn cart had gone off in the Rue Saint-Nicaise in front of the Cafe d'Apollon (the site of the explosion is approximately where the statue of Gambetta now stands in the Tuileries Garden). Fortunately, it had exploded after Napoleon's carriage had passed and before Josephine arrived. Although Napoleon, the intended victim survived the blast, as many as 52 bystanders, were either killed or injured. One grenadier of Napoleon's escort, which was following the coach rather than preceding it as usual, was also injured. Also killed in the explosion was a young girl named Pensel, who had been paid 12 sous by the conspirators to hold the horse, yoked to the cart while they escaped. Numerous buildings in the vicinity were also destroyed or damaged.[br /]
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Josephine and her party, somehow, came into the theater and were greeted by those present. Napoleon was already in his box but inquired about the well being of Josephine.[br /]
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The 'Infernal Machine' plot had, in fact, been put into action by ex-nobles, Pierre Robinault de Saint-Regent, a former French Naval officer and Commandant of the Royalist Catholic and Royal Army of the Vendee, and Joseph-Pierre Picot de Limoelan, another veteran of the wars of La Vendee. Of the assassination attempt, Saint-Regent said : "The gunpowder was not as good as it should have been. Therefore, the explosion took place two to three seconds later than estimated. If not, the First Consul would certainly have been killed. The fault lies with the gunpowder and not the assassin."[br /]
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Apparently the speed of Napoleon's carriage and the fact that the guard was following the coach meant that Saint-Regent, who was injured in the blast, didn't have enough advance warning to correctly time the fuse.[br /]
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The conspirators had been sent to Paris by the tough Chouan leader, Georges Cadoudal, who was in the pay of the British (Saint-Regent was receiving a British government stipend of three sous per diem as well), to deliver the 'coup essentiel' against the French leader. Saint-Regent and Carbon, who were dressed in red, the mark of a parricide, were guillotined on the Place de Greve on April 21,1801.[br /]
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After the failure of the attack on the First Consul, Cadoudal returned to England, where he continued to receive a government allowance of 8 British pounds per week. Three of the conspirators, the Chouan officers Andre Joyaux, Coster Saint-Victor, and Louis-Joseph-Benigne de La Haye-Saint-Hilaire, also escaped to England. Joyaux and Saint-Victor, and the French Generals Jean Victor Moreau and Jean Charles Pichegru, were involved in Cadoudal's 1804 plot to kidnap and murder Napoleon. The plot failed and they were tried and executed. Pichegru died, presumably by his own hand in the prison. Moreau was sent to France (he eventually died in battle serving with the foreign enemies in France). La Haye-Saint-Hilaire returned to France and continued his activities. In September 1807, he was captured after a pitched battle with the gendarmes following the kidnapping of the bishop of Vannes.[br /]
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[b]Divorce & Remarriage[/b][br /]
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With more victories and power, Napoleon was pre-occupied with furthering his ambition. His relationship with Josephine was strained. The first suggestion for divorce came from his brother Lucien who also said that he should marry the Baden princes. In 1804, after returning from Warsaw, Napoleon treated Josephine coldly and slept in a different room. But he did not allow any public discussion on the issue.[br /]
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Napoleon's mind was also full of tension after the attempt on his life. Napoleon had no heir, and as such, was really worried. On December 16, 1809, Napoleon's divorce with Josephine was formalized. The Austrian Emperor, Francis, saw an opportunity and at once sent a word to Napoleon, about his daughter Marie-Louise. Francis was a good Catholic Christian and insisted that the divorce should nullify both Napoleon's civil marriage of 1796 and religious marriage of 1804 with Josephine. The Ecclesiastical Court could annul certain marriages but it was not sure if it would apply some rule to the emperor.[br /]
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It was decided, by and large, that Napoleon's marriage could be nullified because it was without any witnesses. Napoleon received a letter from Metternich, who wrote on behalf of Francis on December 25, 1709. Napoleon had now only to ask formally Francis for his daughter. The Austrian Ambassador drafted the marriage contract for Napoleon and Marie-Louise. The ceremony was to take place in proxy. Napoleon's recent opponent Archduke Charles was to act as the bridegroom in proxy. The marriage took place on March 11, 1810 in Vienna. On March 27, 1810 the bride met the real bridegroom in person.[br /]
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Marie-Louise was a commonplace but sensual girl. She took her betrothal foolishly to her country's arch enemy. She was 20 years younger to Napoleon. To him, she was a new, delightful toy, who mused him with her affectionate behavior. As an empress though, she never matched the poise and popularity of Josephine.[br /]
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Three months after their wedding, Napoleon and Marie-Louise were attending a ball at the Austrian Ambassador's house when an alarming fire broke out. Napoleon saved the life of his wife. But she did not remain a loyal wife to the Emperor. In 1815, when Napoleon was exiled to St Helena, she had an affair with Compe de Neipperg, who was appointed her escort and bore him three children.[br /]
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[b]Napoleon's Important Battles[br /]
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Battle of Marengo
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On June 14, 1800, the French forces rapidly advanced over river Scrivia towards the town of Alessandria and the nearby village of Marengo. They were completely unaware of the fact that 31,000 Austrians were close by. The French Army of the Reserve had 23,700 men but only 23 cannon pieces. The confident French commander did not anticipate the Austrians to take the initiative and attack. The early morning hours of June 14 saw three large Austrian columns coming from Alessandria. The French Victor's division gave ground from around Marengo even with the support of Lannes' division and Murat's cavalry. By 11:30 a.m., there were no French reserves and the ammunition supply was poor. The Austrians stopped briefly to regroup the victorious forces for a renewed assault. Fighting again broke out with the French in retreat around Marengo. The Consular Guard and Monnier's division was in the north attempting to thwart General Ott's flanking maneuver. At 5:00 p.m., the tired French reinforcements of Boudet's division marched from the south and were deployed just in time behind the victor's shattered left wing. Napoleon ordered a counterattack. The French artillery rushed to the flank of the huge Austrian column and fired a case shot at point-blank range. At one spot, an ammunition wagon exploded stunning the Austrians. Then, Killermann's cavalry charged and 6,000 Austrians fled in pursued by Boudet's bayonet infantry. Soon panic spread through most of the army, except for the Austrian left flank with Ott's troops who retreated towards Alessandria. Both sides lost about 7,000 men. But the Austrians' loss was also 7,000 prisoners.[br /]
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[b]Battle of Austerlitz[/b][br /]
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The battle of Austerlitz took place on December 2, 1805. Napoleon had 73,200 men and 139 artillery guns while the Allied army commanded by General Kutusov deployed 85,400 men and 278 artillery items. On the previous day, the Russian army pressed forward and occupied the Pratzen Heights, which the French had earlier abandoned. Napoleon anchored his left flank with Lannes on the Santon hill. Soult's IV Corps held the villages near the Bosenitz and Goldbach streams. Davout's new division held the right flank. The front was about five miles long. Napoleon's cavalry, Guard, and reserves were hidden behind a hill. The Allied General Buxwoden advanced 60,000 men south and west of the Pratzen Heights even as 17,600 men attacked the Santon hill in the north. The Russian Imperial Guard with 8,500 men was held as reserve. By 9:00 a.m., Napoleon ordered Marshall Soult's two divisions to attack southeast towards the Heights. Bernadotte's corps on the left supported him. Meanwhile, a large cavalry action took place in the north by Santon hill. At 10:30 a.m., Kutusov attacked Soult's divisions but they managed to hold due to the strategic placement of artillery. At 1:00 p.m., the Russian Guard routed Soult's troops from the hill.[br /]
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The French cavalry then charged repulsing the Russian Guard. Bernadotte deployed a division to hold the center. The French Imperial Guard advanced southeast onto the Pratzen Heights and then turned southwest to envelop Buxwoden's men. The Allied left flank was routed. The French had lost 8,300 men, while the Russian army lost 16,000 men and 180 artillery pieces.[br /]
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[b]Battle of Jena[/b][br /]
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During the 1805 campaign against Russia and Austria, the Prussians had been convinced to join the Allies against Napoleon. The creation of the Confederation of the Rhine threatened them. But the movement of Bernodotte's Corps through Ansbach was a violation of their neutrality. So the Prussians sent Napoleon an ultimatum in a way that would disagree with him. The ultimatum arrived several days before the battle of Austerlitz, and Napoleon refused to see the messenger until the battle was over. The messenger wisely changed the message to one of congratulations. Napoleon punished Prussia for this with humiliating terms. And with no army mobilized to defend herself, Prussia had to accept. In 1806, Napoleon offered Hanover to England in return for peace, after already promising it to Prussia. This was the last straw. Queen Louise would stand for no more. Napoleon would call her the only man in Prussia. The Prussians occupied Saxony, while hotheads sharpened their swords on the French embassy steps in Berlin. Saxony reluctantly agreed to join Prussia against Napoleon once it realized it could not remain neutral. Napoleon called up the class of 1806. War had begun. While the Prussian high command debated every plan that came up, Napoleon was acting. He formed his corps in a large square and headed through Bamberg and Thuringerwald. Lannes ran into the troops of Prince Louis Ferdinand at Saalfeld and overran them. The prince was killed in the combat.[br /]
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Napoleon gave orders during the night for everyone to rush towards Jena as there would be a battle next day. Lannes began an attack on Closewitz at 6:30 a.m. Due to intense fog, his troops veered to the left and hit the road between Closewitz and Lutzeroda. The infantry slugged it out for over two hours, while the French fought with the Prussian artillery. Suchet took most of Closewitz and much of the road to Lutzeroda. Gazan was repulsed at Lutzeroda, but the Prussians abandoned the village to form a new line. Lannes continued attacking towards Vierzehnheilegen, taking the village and much of the Dornberg heights as well. But a counterattack by Prussian cavalry and infantry pushed the French back to the road between Lutzeroda and Closewitz, taking both villages in the process. Meanwhile Soult was pushing through the Closewitz woods. Prussian light infantry was no match for French trailers, and the French cleared the woods by 8:15 p.m. As Soult headed toward Rodigen, his troops were hit by Holtzendorff's cavalry. Holtzendorff decided to pull back to a new position. Soult's light infantry caught the Prussians in the act, and they began to break. Holtzendorff ordered a general retreat. Guyot's cavalry caught one Prussian column, capturing six guns, and 400 prisoners. Ney arrived on the field at 9:30 a.m. personally leading 3,000 of the best troops in his command. Ordered to the east of Veirzehnheilegen, Ney attacked to its west, taking the burning village from the startled Prussians, who had just pushed out Lannes. He captured the Steinmetz battery, pushed away two cavalry regiments, and started to take the Dornberg heights. But the Prussians counterattacked with 45 squadrons and 11 battalions, supported by 35 cannon and the Saxon Division. Ney's cavalry was chased off, and the Prussian cavalry went around his squares and into the French rear. Ney was surrounded. Napoleon was aware of what had happened and ordered two cavalry regiments to counterattack, Lannes to support Ney, and Augereau to take Isserstedt and link with Ney's left wing. Lannes pushed into Vierzehnheilegen and beyond, linking with Ney briefly before being forced back into the village. Augereau took Isserstedt and linked up with Ney. Ney retreated to Isserstedt, out of ammunition. It was now 11:30 a.m. The Prussian advance stopped short of Veirzehnheilegen. It wasn't the French shooting that stopped them; it was Hohenlohe's desire to wait for Ruchel's 15,000 men. And so the Prussians stayed in the open under heavy artillery fire for a whole hour. At 12:30 p.m., Napoleon began his coup de grace. He ordered attacks on both flanks, to push the Prussian army off the roads they would retreat by. At the same time all the French artillery moved forward to hit the Prussians with canister at close range. The Prussians tried to hold, but the advance of three corps against their center caused them to fall back. Hohenlohe ordered a general withdrawal to another position. The Prussians started retreating well, but then Napoleon unleashed Murat's heavy cavalry at 1:45 p.m. Many Prussians fled from the onslaught. Winkel's battalion formed a square in the road to buy time, as did what was left of Tauentzien's division. The Prussians lost eight colors, 16 cannon and 2,500 more prisoners. By 2:30 p.m., the battle for Jena was over. But Hohenlohe wasn't done making mistakes. While the army was retreating it ran into Ruchel's 15,000 men. Hohenlohe ordered it to attack the French instead of forming a rear-guard. This brought Lannes to a halt.[br /]
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Soon, St Hilaire started outflanking Ruchel and he began to fall back. Ruchel tried to cover his retreat with cavalry, but artillery fire broke them up. Then Murat's cuirassiers came upon the infantry, and they too fled to the rear. Half the Prussian army was in retreat. At the battle of Jena, Napoleon's forces lost 5,000 men. The Prussians had lost 10,000 soldiers, 34 colors and 120 cannon. But the real victory had been at Auerstadt. Bernadotte's corps, which fought in neither battle, would head up the chase of the Prussians. Within 60 days, only 10,000 Prussians would remain in arms, and all of Prussia would be conquered.[br /]
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[b]Battle of Auerstadt[/b][br /]
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Napoleon's campaign against the Prussian army climaxed on October 14, 1806 with the dual battle of Jena-Auerstadt. Napoleon, with the main portion of the French army, engaged what he thought was the entire Prussian army. In fact, Napoleon only faced the Prussian right wing consisting of some 30,000 men while Marshal Davout, in command of the 28,000 men of the First Corps, faced the Duke of Brunswick and his main force of over 50,000 men. Davout ordered his advance units to cross the Hassenhausen plateau and to take up positions in Hassenhausen. When General Gudin's division did so, they ran right into General Bluecher and some 600 Prussian horsemen. The Prussians charged only to be repulsed by the infantry and artillery fire from Gudin's division. Bluecher fell back and called for more cavalry while Gudin solidified his position on the plateau. The Duke of Brunswick released 12 squadrons to Bluecher and brought up two divisions of infantry to attack the French positions. Bluecher, on receiving reinforcement, immediately charged the French without waiting for infantry support. His squadrons quickly spent themselves upon the stout French squares and the Prussian cavalry soon scattered to the rear. The French forces had held against the first assault. Fortunately, because the Prussian cavalry attack was made without infantry support, Gudin's division was able to regroup before the main Prussian body contacted them.[br /]
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The two Prussian infantry divisions, led by Schmettau and Wartensleben, attacked the French forces around Hassenhausen, but failed to dislodge them before the arrival of Marshal Davout and the rest of the French forces reinforced Gudin. The Prussian attack began to lose strength. Then disaster struck the Prussians. The Duke of Brunswick was mortally wounded and his army lost what little hope it had of maintaining the initiative. Davout ordered his troops to counterattack and Morand's division, having just arrived on the field, went on the offensive after beating off yet another cavalry attack by the Prussians. Hesitation in the Prussian high command proved to be the final nail in the Prussian army's coffin. King Frederick Wilhelm III held his remaining corps in reserve while his army was being destroyed piecemeal by Davout's corps. The Prussian army began to melt under the French counterattack and they soon went from retreat to rout. Eventually, the Prussian reserve was engaged and routed as well. Although Davout's Corps suffered heavily, the battle was won. In the days that followed, the pursuit of the Prussian army yielded thousands of captured troops and signaled the final destruction of the image of Prussian "Invincibility".[br /]
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[b]Battle of Maida[/b][br /]
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In June 1806, the British landed an expeditionary force in southern Italy. They soon left Messina, Sicily on June 27 and three days later on June 30 they anchored in the Gulf of Euphemia. The French commander, General Reynier quickly marched towards the 5000 British troops with 5000 infantry and 1000 cavalry. The British commander was General John Stuart. The two forces clashed near the village of Maida on July 6 same year. Reynier advanced in column formation across a river onto the open plain. Stuart's infantry deployed in line formation too deep along a low ridge. The British held their fire and advanced firing at point blank range. They then followed up charging with the light infantry. The French left flank soon routed with the British in pursuit. Reynier lost 700 killed, 1000 wounded and 1000 prisoners while Stuart lost only 330 men. This action proved that the British tactics was more than a match for the French column.[br /]
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[b]Battle of Corunna[/b][br /]
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In November 1807, the French invaded Portugal, by way of Spain, in an attempt to solidify Napoleon's Continental Blockade of England. All other powers on the continent were controlled by Napoleon or paying lip service to him. Realizing that Spain was barely pretending to enforce the blockade, and that the Spanish monarchs were getting ready to change sides, Napoleon imprisoned the Spanish monarchs and invaded Spain. The British landed at Portugal with Arthur Wellesley in temporary command. After the battles of Rolica and Vimiero, Wellesley had the army of Portugal trapped and was preparing to annihilate it. His immediate superiors arrived and allowed the French to go home on British ships. All the three British commanders were brought home for a court-martial and Sir John Moore became Commander of the peninsular expedition. Hearing mistaken information from the Spanish, and thinking Soult's corps was overextended and could be trapped and destroyed, Moore invaded northern Spain. It was a serious mistake that would tarnish his memory for decades. The French had just crushed the northern Spanish armies and were heading south. Napoleon wanted a British defeat more than many Spanish ones, and saw a chance to finally fight back against his mortal enemies.[br /]
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The French converged on Moore's small force. Moore retreated desperately towards the nearest fleet. Napoleon himself followed until news of Austrian aggression urged him home. The retreat was a nightmare. Moore barely arrived at La Coruna, with Soult close behind. As the troops were preparing to embark, the French arrived. Moore placed most of his troops on the heights near Elvina, with others guarding his right flank. Soult made no attempt at maneuver. Leaving his cavalry to protect his left flank, Soult charged headlong into the British. The Rifles were in the village, but the French column drove them out.[br /]
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The French then split into two columns, one advancing on Baird's division, the other trying to outflank it. The 42nd and 50th were sent forward and fired into one column's exposed flank. That column could not break through the light infantry, and ground to a halt. Moore then ordered Fraser's Division to go up the valley past the French cavalry, and outflank the attackers. The 42nd and 50th drove the French back into Elvina. Moore sent forward a battalion of the guards. Baird was here hit by grapeshot in the arm and left the field.[br /]
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Moore then ordered the 42nd to charge with the bayonet. The British in the valley had repulsed the French cavalry effectively and were stopping the second column. It looked as if it were about to retreat. At this moment Moore was fatally wounded and taken to La Coruna. The French retreated. Soult's troops were so badly hurt that they made no attempt to stop the British from boarding the rest of their troops the next day. The British escaped to England, and Arthur Wellesley returned to command the rest of the Allied forces in Portugal. As important, Napoleon never returned to Spain to finish off the Spaniards.[br /]
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[b]Battle of Medellin[/b][br /]
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The battle of Medellin took place on March 28, 1809. Marshall Victor with 18000 men took up position on the south of the town of Medellin with the Guadiana river behind. There they awaited the attack of General Cuesta and 24,000 men of the Spanish Army of Estremadura. Although outnumbered, the French had more artillery and cavalry. Cuesta advanced along a four-mile front hoping to turn the French flanks, but the French retreated orderly to a new position where the French commander Victor had previously planned to make his stand. The French hussars charged the Spanish lancers on the Spanish left wing. The Spanish fled with other cavalry as well. Cuesta managed to barely escape capture. French dragoons next charged and the entire Spanish army became a mass of routed troops. Up to 10,000 Spaniards were killed or captured in the rout.[br /]
[br /]

[b]Battle of Podubno[/b][br /]
[br /]


The broken promises of the Russians in 1809 began Napoleon thinking of punishing them again. He expected a quick campaign with one great battle and paid little attention to the fighting in Spain. When he latched upon an objective he was always single-minded about it. Once he formulated a plan he stuck to it to the end. Having decided to punish Russia he ignored Spain. While Napoleon was advancing towards Smolensk, and later Moscow, Schwarzenberg's Austrian corps and Reynier's Saxon corps protected his right flank. He called Schwarzenberg towards him, just as Tormassov assaulted Reynier and destroyed one of his isolated brigades. Always the dependable general, Schwarzenberg headed back to help Reynier while sending a note to Napoleon explaining his actions. Against 25,000 Austrians and 13,000 Saxons, Tormassov had only 18,000 men to defend himself. He began retreating until he found a strong position.[br /]
[br /]


There he waited for his 13,000 reserves. The Russian position was a strong one. Tormassov was behind a river with swampland on his flanks. A frontal assault would be bloody. Schwarzenberg had no desire to get Austrians slaughtered for a French Emperor. He would fight minor skirmishes if necessary, but maneuvering in the old Prussian style was his main form of attack. Reynier suggested that he strike the Russian left flank. Schwarzenberg agreed, and gave him two Austrian corps to help him do so. The Saxon light infantry reached the crossroads, were pushed back, reinforced, and advanced forwards again. Reynier emerged from the woods onto a plain. The Saxon left moved forward. Lilienberg was wounded and Bianchi took over his command. The Russians had hurriedly to change their positions to face the Saxons. The Saxon left attempted to cut the Russians only line of retreat, the Kobrin to Gorodetschna road. The Russians concentrated their artillery against the Saxon left and the Austrians across the river. Russian dragoons repeatedly charged the Saxon left, forcing them into square. Other Russian cavalry charged the Saxon center. Reynier's cavalry drove them off and attempted to cut the Russian retreat.[br /]
[br /]


But the Russian cavalry drove them off. The cavalry began to tire and the Saxon left began moving forward towards evening. The Austrians finally started moving slowly against the Russian right around 5 PM. As the Russians began withdrawing from his front, Frimont advanced across the river. The Russians sent infantry and cavalry to await Frimont's attack. Finding the position too strong, Frimont withdrew across the river as night was falling. Tormassov received his 13,000 reinforcements, but decided to find a better position to make a stand. Russian losses were 4,000 killed and 500 prisoners even as the Austrians lost 2,000 men. Saxons lost 832 men. For the moment, it was safe for Napoleon to march to Moscow. Had Reynier lost the battle of Podubno, Napoleon might have wintered at Smolensk.[br /]
[br /]

[b]Battle of Albuera[/b][br /]
[br /]


In May 1811, Marshall Soult was in the process of moving troops to relieve Badajoz, which was under siege. Marshall Beresford moved 35,000 troops to intercept Soult's advance. Beresford took up position at the river crossings near the village of Albuera, which was located along the Albuera river. He then waited for the French to attack. Soult had only 24,260 men and 48 artillery pieces. He sent a strong force of infantry against the bridge and village. In addition he sent his cavalry and more infantry farther to the south to cross the fords there. The French force of 4,000 cavalry and 19 infantry battalions scattered the weaker Spanish troops holding this area of the battlefield. The French were threatening to roll up the Allied line. Beresford ordered General Blake to form a defensive right flank, but he maneuvered only four battalions against two French divisions.[br /]
[br /]


The Spanish forces gallantly held off the French columns giving time for General Stewart's second division to reinforce. Colbourne's brigade suffered 60 per cent casualties against the French when charged in the flank by Polish Lancers. The Spanish line still held. The French attacked again in a huge column with close artillery support. The Spanish Houghton's brigade lost 80 per cent of the force. Sir Henry Hardinge and General Lowry Cole brought additional 4,000 men on their own initiative and helped repulse the French attack. A charge by the Fusilier Brigade routed the French. After the French were cleared out of Albuera, the battle was over. In just four hours the French had lost 8,000 men, while the Allies lost 6,000.[br /]
[br /]

[b]Battle of Borodino[/b][br /]
[br /]


In June 1812, Napoleon embarked on his most famous, and most disastrous, campaign : the invasion of Russia. Throughout the summer, the French and the Russians fought a series of indecisive battles, which led to the Russians retreating further into their homeland. By September, Napoleon wanted a battle, which would end the conflict before winter's onset, and the Russians wanted to fight before reaching the gates to Moscow. Borodino was the result. The pivotal Russian defense position at Borodino was a series of entrenchments and breastworks atop a hill that became known as the Great Redoubt. The job of taking this fortress fell to the men in Eugene's corps. Supported by no less than 120 artillery pieces, Eugene's infantry stormed up the hill in the morning of September 7 that year. The lead regiment in Morrand's division reached the breastworks directly after their opponents had discharged their cannons. Taking fearsome casualties, the French managed to invest the redoubt and gain control of most of it. Russian counterattacks, however, threw the French back down the hill and recaptured the defensive works. As the 30th Infantry Regiment retreated down the slope, an entire brigade of Russian dragoons struck them. By the end of the day, only 11 officers and 257 men remained in the regiment. Fighting off several cavalry attacks, the French managed to stabilize the situation and by 2:00 p.m., the French were ready to assault the redoubt a second time. Led by Gerard's division and supported by Morrand's and Broussier's, the French charged up the hill. On Gerard's left, Montbrun's cavalry moved forward to flank the redoubt. No fewer than 400 guns pounded the Russian defenses. As Montbrun led his corps to the attack, he was killed by Russian artillery fire. General August de Caulaincourt took command of the corps and led the fifth Cuirassiers around to the rear of the redoubt. As his men engaged the Russian gunners, a musket ball killed the General. The French cavalry began to waver as the Russian resistance stiffened. Just in time, the French ninth Regiment of Line poured into the western side and caught the Russian defenders in a trap. The Russians were quickly overwhelmed and the French took possession of the redoubt for the second time. Despite several Russian counterattacks, the French managed to hold on to their gain. The Russians pulled back, due to the French controlled salient in their center.[br /]
[br /]


However, the French, totally exhausted, were unable to exploit their gains. The battle ended shortly after 5:00 p.m. with both armies trying to regain their strength. Napoleon gained the field at Borodino and opened the road to Moscow. However, his army was weakened by the battle and would soon be forced to retreat through the terrible Russian winter. By the end of 1812, the Grand Armee ceased to exist as a fighting force.[br /]
[br /]

[b]Battle of Leipzig[/b][br /]
[br /]


The German campaign of 1813 is remarkable in many ways. After losing one army Napoleon created another one and defeated the armies of the allies at Lutzen and Bautzen. The allies decided not to attack Napoleon himself, but fought his subordinates and defeated them viciously at battles like Gross Beeren. Napoleon had several chances at keeping his throne but threw them away. He was finally trapped at Leipzig in a three-day battle that cost him his second army. He then went on and built a third army. The battle at Leipzig could have been a major victory. Napoleon put minor forces to the north as a rearguard, expecting Blucher to be too far away to arrive in time to spoil his plans. He then pinned down the Army of Bohemia with the intention of destroying it. After heavy fighting the French were causing serious damage to Schwarzenberg. But Blucher arrived in the north and pushed the French out of Mockern, and Schwarzenberg sent reserves on the French flank. Having to use up his reserves, Napoleon could not achieve the victory. The next day was mostly spent in negotiations while Napoleon waited for the rest of his men. But the allies received even more reinforcements than Napoleon. The allies attacked all along the front, giving and taking ground, but much of the day was fought by artillery. Most of the Saxons deserted to the Allies.[br /]
[br /]


By nightfall, the French had again given far more casualties than received, and Napoleon pulled back to a line he had chosen earlier, closer to the city. During the 19th the French began to retreat over the only bridge. As the French were crossing the bridge the sounds of firing got nearer. A corporal of the guard was left to watch the bridge and lost his nerve, destroying the bridge while covered with troops. Over 30,000 men and 260 cannon were still on the other side. There was bloody hand-to-hand fighting in the city, until the Russians allowed the French to surrender. The end of the Napoleonic Empire was just over the horizon.[br /]
[br /]

[b]Battle of Quatre Bras[/b][br /]
[br /]


In June 1815, Napoleon was faced with the most serious dilemma of his military life. All around him, France's enemies were mobilizing to crush his resurgent power. Determined to strike at the separated allied armies before they could form into an invincible force, Napoleon set out with an army of 125,000 men to surprise his enemies in Belgium. Deciding to attack both the Anglo-Dutch army and the Prussian army simultaneously, Napoleon gave command of the left wing of the army to Marshal Ney for attacking the Anglo-Dutch at Quatre Bras. Napoleon himself led the right wing and the Imperial Guard against the Prussians at Ligny.[br /]
[br /]


Ney was ordered to take Corps I and II and III and attack the Anglo-Dutch positions at Quatre Bras. He was to capture the vital road net in order to prevent the Prussian Army, under General Bluecher, from joining the Wellington's force. Ney, left to his own devices, was cautious and waited until 11:00 a.m. that day before issuing orders to his subordinates. Finally, the word went out and the French advance began around 1:30 p.m. The French advance, starting late, was further delayed by being extremely cautious. The French commanders were fearful that the British were lying in ambush behind the thick fields of tall corn or behind the gentle slopes that dotted the landscape. These very techniques were the favorite tactics of the Duke of Wellington and had been used with devastating effectiveness during the peninsular campaigns. However, the local Allied commander had but 8,000 troops with which to defend Quatre Bras. Worse still, most of these troops were either Dutch or Belgian infantry of dubious quality at best. In order to deceive the French as to the actual number of Allied troops present, Wellington ordered the Jager Battalion to deploy in front of the main defense line in a mile-long perimeter. This totally over extended the unit and they were all but wiped out in the ensuing battle. However, the effect had been to slow the French advance, buying more time for the Allied army.[br /]
[br /]


The first major French assault was on the line formed in front of Quatre Bras, with the village of Pireaumont on the left flank, the Bossu Woods on the right flank, and the Farmhouse at Gemioncourt in the center. Slowly the French drove the defenders back, taking Pireaumont and beginning the push into the Bossu Woods. Meanwhile, Ney found himself deprived of D'Erlon's Corps by the order of Napoleon. The First Corps had been ordered to attack the Prussian flank at Ligny. Ney ordered them back, only to be countermanded again by an Emperor who knew little of the events taking place at Quatre Bras. They ended up spending most of the day marching back and forth. Ney found himself in a quickly deteriorating situation. He still outnumbered the enemy, but they were rapidly building while Ney's forces were dwindling.[br /]
[br /]


At this critical moment, Ney ordered a cavalry charge by Pire's lancers. The initial charge crushed the 27th Dutch Jagers, only to be halted by the 5th Infantry Division led by General Picton. The Allies, bolstered by Picton's 5th and others, managed to fight the French to a standstill. Ney tried to force Wellington's center with two divisions, only to be once again repulsed by point-blank musket fire. This, combined with the arrival of information that D'Erlon's First Corps was on its way back to Ligny, frustrated Ney beyond all reason. Ney turned to General Kellerman, in command of the III Cavalry Corps, and ordered him to charge, without infantry support, the reinforced enemy line. After futile protest, Kellerman led his 800 Cuirassiers forward in a reckless charge that overran several unprepared infantry regiments, including the 69th and 33rd Regiments and even reached the contested crossroads in Quatre Bras. Unsupported as they were, they were then attacked by concealed batteries of cannon and fresh infantry battalions and forced to flee back through the swath they had cut in the Allied lines. Ney, now outnumbered and pressed by British counter-attacks all along his line, pulled back and waited for night. The Battle for Quatre Bras was over, and before the end of the day the original Anglo-Dutch lines would be recaptured. It was a draw in every sense of the word, something Napoleon could ill afford at this stage.[br /]
[br /]

[b]Battle of Waterloo[/b][br /]
[br /]


In the summer of 1815, Napoleon found himself again facing Wellington, this time in Belgium. He intended to divide the Prussian and British armies and destroy them in detail. On June 16 that year, Napoleon led half his army into battle against the Prussians at Ligny while Ney led the other half against the British at Quatre Bras. Two days later, Napoleon faced Wellington for the last time. After the battle of Ligny and Quatre Bras, Napoleon advanced on the British army, which was concentrated at Mont St Jean, Belgium. The British had arrayed their forces in a defensive posture on a slight ridge that overlooked a marshy valley. Wellington had anchored his right flank on a stone farmhouse called Chateau de Hougoumont. In the center of his line was another farmhouse known as La Haye Saint. Both the farmhouses had almost been converted into fortresses, giving the British excellent defensive strongpoint. On the day of the battle, Napoleon launched a three-pronged attack on the Anglo-Dutch positions. Fearing that any sort of a flanking assault would bog down in the valley, Napoleon decided to concentrate the majority of his forces in an attempt to break Wellington's center and intended to launch only pinning attacks on the British left and right wings.[br /]
[br /]


The French offensive began on the British right flank at the Chateau. Held by only four light companies of British guards, the Chateau became the focal point of vicious, close-range fighting. Desperate attack followed desperate attack until virtually all of Prince Jerome's division, and almost half of the rest of Reille's corps, was involved in the fight. Wellington, seeing the mass of uncommitted French troops opposite his center, resisted the temptation to reinforce the Chateau's defenders and chose to save his reserves for the upcoming frontal assault. At 1:30 that afternoon, the main French assault began. Under the cover of an 80-gun barrage, three French divisions charged through the valley and up the slope of the ridge. When the French reached the crest of the hill, they were met with withering musket fire at point-blank range. In order to keep his units intact through the bombardment, Wellington had ordered his men to lie down on the concealed side of the ridge. So, when the 16,000 men of D'Erlon's First Corps reached the top of the rise, they were confronted with a mass of organized and determined British regulars. Nevertheless, the French fought fiercely and succeeded in forcing a hole in the Allied center. Before the French could exploit this weakness, however, General Picton and a brigade of his peninsular veterans charged into the fray and stopped the French breakthrough. D'Erlon could move no further. Wellington, seeing the French stalled on the ridge, called his cavalry for the attack.[br /]
[br /]


Under Lord Uxbridge's command, Lord Somerset's Household cavalry and Ponsonby's Union Brigade Charged into the disordered French and threw them off the ridge. D'Erlon's men were put to flight and badly mauled by the elite British heavy cavalry. Spurred on by their success, the British cavalry continued their chase until they reached the main French lines. Without infantry support, they were all but annihilated by French artillery and cavalry counter-charges. At this point, Marshal Ney was ordered to take La Haye Saint, the farmhouse that so nicely reinforced the Allied center. He led the rallied remnants of D'Erlon's first corps forward under cover of an intense bombardment and was repulsed by the dug in defenders. Ney, thinking that the Allies were ready to crack, called for a massive cavalry charge. He led forward no less than 5,000 cavalrymen, many of them elite heavy cavalry, in a charge against the ridge between La Haye Saint and Hougoumont.[br /]
[br /]


On reaching the crest, the French were confronted with an awesome spectacle, 20 British squares drawn up on the reverse slope of the hill, waiting with gleaming bayonets for the gallant French horsemen. The French cavalry circled the invincible squares, but without artillery or infantry support the charge was doomed to failure.[br /]
[br /]


The survivors fled through the valley while Ney tried in vain to rally them. After a brief lull in the battle, Ney again formed an assault force out of the remnants of his cavalry and again charged the ridge. He was once more repulsed, but this time only barely. Wellington's troops were becoming weary and he was running out of reserves. After another lull in the battle, Ney decided to try again. This time, however, he used a proper combination of artillery, infantry, and cavalry and he took La Haye Saint. Despite heavy casualties, the French managed to storm the farmhouse and the nearby orchard. The British line was about to crack and Ney could sense it. He called to Napoleon for more reserves, but due to the Prussian arrival on the French right flank, there were none left as the Imperial Guard was being committed against the Prussians. Ney was forced to give up his gains and pulled back across the valley. The battle quieted for a short time, during which the Imperial Guard was placed back in reserve. Wellington brought up the last of his reserves and prepared for the final onslaught. At 7:00 p.m. that day, the Imperial Guard was released to Ney and ordered to take the British-held positions on the ridge between La Haye Saint and Hougoumont. The battalions of the most disciplined and experienced troops in Europe, marched up the ridge. Upon reaching the crest, an entire brigade of British troops rose up from a cornfield and poured withering fire into the French columns. For the first time, the Guard broke and ran before the enemy. With the cry of, "La Guard recule!" the French army began to disintegrate. Wellington seized the moment and counterattacked, putting the rest of the army to flight. Napoleon's last desperate gamble for victory had failed, and with it his dreams of rebuilding his empire.[br /]
[br /]

[b]Last Few Years[/b][br /]
[br /]


After his defeat in the battle of Waterloo, Napoleon was back in Paris by June 1815, with no army to follow, no future plan, no destination to reach, and yet the man called himself the Emperor of France. Having nothing to do was all the more detrimental to him as he was used to make plans, giving orders, deciding, leading and controlling people. He wrote a letter on July 13, 1815 to the Prince Regent of Britain. The man, who had a lion's roar on the battlefield for all his life, was now addressing the prince in the most humble tone seeking to be treated like a defeated soldier. He was a prisoner of war, and wanted that he be treated with dignity even in times of defeat.[br /]
[br /]


On July 31, 1815, the British government decided to deport him to remainder of his life to St Helena in a ship called Bellerophon. Napoleon was sent to one of the safest prisons, so that he could be allowed perfect liberty inside the prison. Here, he stayed for nearly five-and-a-half years with resentment against this tightened security.[br /]
[br /]


While in exile, his health did not remain up to the mark. What was the exact cause of Napoleon's illness is still disputed. There are two theories as to Napoleon's illness. The French believed that it was due to a liver disease brought on by the climate at St Helena. The British believed that the symptoms were that of a hypochondriac. But if he was really ailing, then it was due to a long cancer. But the real problem was never diagnosed. The man actually suffered form a gastric ulcer, which long existed and was improperly treated. This was the disease due to which Napoleon believed his father and sister had to suffer and he, too, could die.[br /]
[br /]


Napoleon was now very tired of life. He almost wished he were dead rather than lead the kind of dull, vegetating life. Nearly a month before his death, he dictated his will to Montholon and adding fresh codicils. On May 4, 1821, he lay with his hands crossed on his breast, his eyes half closed and his pulse weakening. On May 5, 1821 Napoleon lay almost like a corpse; only from time to time, a tear fell on his cheek. On the previous night he had uttered his son's name. During the last hours, the curtains had been drawn back, windows opened and members of the family stood in silence. Just when Napoleon passed away, someone stopped the clock on the mantelpiece. It was 5: 51 p.m.[br /]
[br /]

[b]Burial[/b][br /]
[br /]


Almost 20 years later in October 1941, the mortal remains of Napoleon were to be entombed. Around midnight of October 14, 1941 the work at the tomb started. Early next day, the innermost of the three coffins was opened and the body found almost untouched by time - that of a young man with a face sans wrinkles. The coffin was closed again, placed in an outer case brought from France and covered with a pall bearing the initial 'N' and a crown. The body was transferred to Paris and buried.[br /]
[br /]


Almost a hundred years after his death, summing up his rise and fall, the epitaph read : "He forgot a man cannot be God that above the individual is the nation, and above mankind the moral law : he forgot that war is not the highest aim, for peace is above war."[br /]
[br /]
[br /]

The greatness of a man is measured not just by the success he gets but also the way he achieves it. The struggle for success is, therefore, often far more important than the success itself. Napoleon's entire life was a saga of struggle. But it is sad and ironical that a man who possessed some outstanding qualities had to face numerous defeats in life.[br /]
[br /]

Napoleon always desired to move upwards in life and planned all his moves carefully. He was a resilient person; he accepted many challenges and made valiant efforts to triumph over them. The most remarkable thing about Napoleon was that even in the face of defeat, he showed exemplary courage.[br /]
[br /]


His first marriage with Josephine ended in divorce. Later, he married Marie-Louise, daughter of the Austrian emperor.[br /]
[br /]


The great warrior always cherished a strong desire to succeed and fought many battles. Napoleon's name is synonymous with numerous victories.[br /]
[br /]
[br /]

[b]August 15, 1769[/b] Napoleon was born.[br /]
[br /]

[b]1779[/b] Schooling in Brienne.[br /]
[br /]

[b]1784[/b] Enrolled at the Military Academy.[br /]
[br /]

[b]1785[/b] Sub-Lieutenant in artillery.[br /]
[br /]

[b]1789[/b] Goes to Corsica[br /]
[br /]

[b]April 1791[/b] Lieutenant in Valence,[br /]
[br /]

[b]October 1791[/b] Goes to Corsica.[br /]
[br /]

[b]1792[/b] Putsch in Ajaccio, Banishment.[br /]
[br /]

[b]1793[/b] Captain. [br /]

Siege of Toulon.[br /]
[br /]

[b]February 1794[/b] Becomes Brigadier General[br /]
[br /]

[b]August, 1794[/b] Arrested.[br /]
[br /]

[b]June 1795[/b] At the Ministry of War.[br /]
[br /]

[b]October, 1795[/b] Suppression of the Paris rising. [br /]

Commander of the Army of the Interior.[br /]
[br /]

[b]March 2, 1796[/b] Commander of the Army of Italy,[br /]
[br /]

[b]March 6, 1796[/b] Married to Josephine Beauharnais.[br /]
[br /]

[b]1796-7[/b] Battles of Millesimo, Castiglione, Arcola, Rivoli, Mantua[br /]
[br /]

[b]1797[/b] At the castle of Montebello. [br /]

Peace of Campo Formio[br /]
[br /]

[b]1798[/b] In Paris[br /]
[br /]

[b]May 19, 1798[/b] Battle of Pyramids.[br /]
[br /]

[b]1799[/b] Jaffa, Acre, Aboukir.[br /]
[br /]

[b]October 7, 1799[/b] Landing in France.[br /]
[br /]

[b]November 9, 1799[/b] Coup d'etat of the eighteenth Brumaire.[br /]
[br /]

[b]December 24, 1799[/b] First Consul[br /]
[br /]

[b]June 14, 1800[/b] Battle of Marengo.[br /]
[br /]

[b]December 24,1800[/b] Attempted assassination.[br /]
[br /]

[b]1801[/b] Peace of Luneville. [br /]

Concordat with Pius VII.[br /]
[br /]

[b]1802[/b] Peace with England. [br /]

Consul for life. [br /]

Legion of Honor.[br /]
[br /]

[b]March 21, 1804[/b]
Duke of Erghien shot[br /]
[br /]

[b]May 18, 1804[/b]
Assumption of Imperial Title.[br /]
[br /]

[b]December 2, 1804[/b]
Coronation[br /]
[br /]

[b]November 1805[/b]
Vienna taken.[br /]
[br /]

[b]December 2, 1805[/b]
Battle of Austerlitz. [br /]

Peace of Pressburg[br /]
[br /]

[b]1806[/b]
Confederation of the Rhine. Joseph, King of Naples, [br /]

Louis, King of Holland.[br /]
[br /]

[b]October 14, 1806 [/b]
Battle of Jena.[br /]

Berlin. Continental System.[br /]
[br /]


[b]1807[/b]
Battles of Preussiasch-Eylau and Friendland.[br /]
[br /]

[b]June 7, 1807[/b]
Treaty of Tilsit.[br /]

Jerome, King of Westphalia.[br /]
[br /]


[b]1808[/b] Rome. Madrid. Bayonne. Joseph, King of Spain. [br /]

Murat, King of Naples.[br /]
[br /]

[b]1809[/b]
Excommunication. [br /]

Battles of Aspern-Essling, Wagram, and Vienna.[br /]
[br /]

[b]January 1810[/b]
Divorce.[br /]
[br /]

[b]April 1810[/b]
Marriage with Marie Louise.[br /]
[br /]

[b]March 20, 1811[/b]
Birth of his son.[br /]
[br /]

[b]1812[/b]
Battles of Smolensk, Borodino, Vittoria, Moscow.[br /]
[br /]

[b]December 1812 [/b]
Return to Paris.[br /]
[br /]

[b]April 1813[/b]
Battles of Lutzen and Bautzen.[br /]
[br /]


[b]July 1813[/b] Battles of Dresden[br /]
[br /]

[b]October 16-18, 1813[/b] Battle of Leipzig.[br /]
[br /]

[b]1814[/b] Battles of Brienne, La Rothiere, Champaubert, Montereau, Bas-sur-Aube, Laon, Arcis-sur-Aube.[br /]
[br /]

[b]April 6,1814[/b] Abdication in Fontainebleau.[br /]
[br /]

[b]April 20, 1814[/b]

Embarkation for Elba.[br /]
[br /]

[b]February 26, 1815[/b] Sails from Elba.[br /]
[br /]

[b]March 13,1815[/b] Outlawed.[br /]
[br /]

[b]March 20,1815[/b] Visit to Paris[br /]
[br /]

[b]June, 1815[/b] Battles of Ligny and Waterloo.[br /]
[br /]

[b]June 23,1815[/b]
Second abdication.[br /]
[br /]


[b]July 13,1815[/b] Letter to Prince Regent.[br /]
[br /]

[b]July 31, 1815[/b] Declared a prisoner.[br /]
[br /]

[b]October 17, 1815[/b] Arrival in St Helena[br /]
[br /]

[b]May 5, 1821[/b] Death.[br /]
[br /]
[br /]

[b]•[/b] A man will fight harder for his interests than for his rights.[br /]
[br /]

[b]•[/b] A man's palate can, in time, become accustomed to anything.[br /]
[br /]

[b]•[/b] A picture is worth a thousand words.[br /]
[br /]

[b]•[/b] A society without religion is like a vessel without compass.[br /]
[br /]

[b]•[/b] A throne is only a bench covered with velvet.[br /]
[br /]

[b]•[/b] A true man hates no one.[br /]
[br /]

[b]•[/b] Ability is of little account without opportunity.[br /]
[br /]

[b]•[/b] Above all, do not fail to give good dinners, and to pay attention to the women.[br /]
[br /]

[b]•[/b] An army marches on its stomach.[br /]
[br /]

[b]•[/b] Celebrated people lose dignity upon a closer view.[br /]
[br /]

[b]•[/b] Courage is like love; it must have hope for nourishment.[br /]
[br /]

[b]•[/b] Death is nothing but to live defeated, and inglorious is to die daily.[br /]
[br /]

[b]•[/b] Do you wish to find out the really sublime? Repeat the Lord's Prayer.[br /]
[br /]

[b]•[/b] Doctors will have more lives to answer for in the next world than even we generals.[br /]
[br /]

[b]•[/b] England is a nation of shopkeepers.[br /]
[br /]

[b]•[/b] Even when I am gone, I shall remain in people's minds as the star of their rights; my name will be the war cry of their efforts, the motto of their hopes.[br /]
[br /]

[b]•[/b] Four hostile newspapers are more to be feared than a thousand bayonets.[br /]
[br /]

[b]•[/b] From the sublime to the ridiculous is but a step.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] Glory is fleeting, but obscurity is forever.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] God! How men of letters are stupid.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] High politics is only common sense applied to great things.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] History is the version of past events that people have decided to agree upon.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] I know when it is necessary, how to leave the skin of lion to take one of fox.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] I love power. But it is as an artist that I love it. I love it as a musician loves his violin, to draw out its sounds and chords and harmonies.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] If I had to choose a religion, the sun as the universal giver of life would be my god.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] If you want a thing done well, do it yourself.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] If you wish to be a success in the world, promise everything, deliver nothing.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] Impossible is a word to be found only in the dictionary of fools.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] In politics stupidity is not a handicap.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] It is the success which makes great men.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] Men are more easily governed through their vices than through their virtues.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] Men take only their needs into consideration, never their abilities.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] Never ascribe to malice that which is adequately explained by incompetence.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] Never interrupt your enemy when he is making a mistake.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] Nothing is more difficult, and therefore more precious, than to be able to decide.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] Power is my mistress. I have worked too hard at her conquest to allow anyone to take her away from me.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] Religion is what keeps the poor from murdering the rich.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] Soldiers generally win battles, generals get credit for them.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] Take time to deliberate, but when the time for action has arrived, stop thinking and go in.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] Ten people who speak make more noise than ten thousand who are silent.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] The best way to keep one's word is not to give it.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] The first quality for a commander-in-chief is a cool head to receive a correct impression of things. He should not allow himself to be confused by either good or bad news.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] The first virtue in a soldier is endurance of fatigue; courage is only the second virtue.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] The French complain of everything, and always.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] The great art of governing consists in not letting men grow old in their jobs.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] The great proof of madness is the disproportion of one's designs to one's means.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] The herd seek out the great, not for their sake but for their influence; and the great welcome them out of vanity or need.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] The most dangerous moment comes with victory.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] The only conquests which are permanent and leave no regrets are our conquests over ourselves.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] The surest way to remain poor is to be an honest man.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] There are only two forces in the world, the sword and the spirit. In the long run the sword will always be conquered by the spirit.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] There are two levers for moving men - interest and fear.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] There is no class of people so hard to manage in a state, as those whose intentions are honest but whose consciences are bewitched.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] There is no place in a fanatic's head where reason can enter.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] There is one kind of robber whom the law does not strike at, and who steals what is most precious to men: time.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] Those who have changed the universe have never done it by changing officials, but always by inspiring the people.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] To do all that one is able to do, is to be a man; to do all that one would like to do, is to be a god.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] Two armies are two bodies which meet and try to frighten each other.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] Victory belongs to the most persevering.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] Water, air, and cleanness are the chief articles in my pharmacy.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] We are born, we live, we die among supernatural.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] We may stop ourselves when going up, never when going down.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] We must laugh at man to avoid crying for him.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] When firmness is sufficient, rashness is unnecessary.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] You must not fight too often with one enemy, or you will teach him all your art of war.[br /]
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[b]•[/b] You would make a ship sail against the winds and currents by lighting a bonfire under her deck. I have no time for such nonsense.[br /]
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Comments - Napoleon Buonaparte